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Christmas competition, part II:- 
a Star printer, Commodore 64 & disk driv 



►rei 



When you've 

already made the 

best home computer 

what do you 
do for an encore? 





$1995 

with Colour Monitc 

$1595 

with Green Screen 



W 



/ ' I / " I ' I '' I " 1 ' I K I ' I ' I ' I 

■ / * i • r • i " r j i ° 



Amstrad CPC 612 

with Colour Monitor or Green Screen 






^ ^^^ 



An Expanding System 



By including a disc drive and L2SK or RAM with the CPC6128, 
Amstrad has elevated the budget price computer beyond being primarily 
a games console into the realm where serious business applications may 
be tackled with ease. 

Digital Research's famous CP/M Plus operating system keeps your 
CPC6128 disc filing in order while programs like Microscript ana Amsoft 
Business Control system (dual disc systems) keeps your business affairs 
in order. 

The Amstrad CPC6128 is the ideal computer for the small business, and 
what with rates, mortgages, HP, income tax, insurance etc just about 
everyone can benefit from running their personal affairs with the aid of a 
low cost computer. 

Give all your correspondence the professional touch. Plan your 
domestic budget, file names and addresses, organise your time more 
effectively. Amsoft has programmes already available to do all these 
tasksandmanvmore. 



The Entertaining CPC6128 



With over 300 colourful games already available covering everything 
from advanced flight and combat simulation to slick examples of all the 
arcade classics, the CPC6128 has an unfair advantage over its 
competitors. 

There's shoot-outs, adventures, brain teasers, card games, 'simulations' 
- enough to keep the most agile and inquisitive minds busy indefinitely. 
As part of the CPC6128 package you will also receive CPM plus, GSX 
and Dr Logo, the world famous teaching and graphics language that 
introduces the concepts and ideas behind writing computer programs. 



High Performance-Low Cost 



The one thing you won't need a computer to work out is that the 
Amstrad CPC6128 represents outstanding 
value for money. You only have to check the 
cost of buying all the elements separately, 
128K RAM computer, disc drive and monitor 
to realise that the Amstrad package is very 
hard to beat. 




There is a complete range of peripherals available to CPC6128 which 
plug into built in interfaces. These include a joystick and printers. The 
Centronics compatible parallel printer interface connects to a vast range 
of printers, from low cost dot matrix through to daisywheel printers 
giving superb print quality. 

The expansion connector at the rear of the CPC6128 contains all the 
signals necessary to implement a wide range of add-on peripherals. 
Modems, light pens, speech synthesizes and serial interfaces are amongst 
products already available or in development by either Amstrad or 
independent vendors. 



Compatibility 



The Amstrad Serial Interface (RS232C) is much more than just a 
complete means of connecting serial printers and modems. It's a 
complete extension and expansion system that incorporates its own ROM 
software to emulate terminals so that your CPC system can work in 
conjunction with mini and microframe computer systems. 

There's a full PRESTEL mode with graphics and colour. 

The built in ROM BASIC for the CPCG128 is in the tradition of 
excellence established by the CPC464 and CPC664. Programs written 
using the CPC464/CPCS64 BASIC will run on die CPC6128. 



Amstrad Join The Club 



As a member you will enjoy regular magazines, competitions for 
valuable prizes and contact with other Amstrad users. 
Whether you're a games fanatic or interested in serious business 

applications, you'll want to join the 
club. 



-totel! 




Figure analysis 

made easy with Microspread. 



— . s 




GnAnwTflnp 



— n 



I'd like to know more about 
the totaJlylprofessional .CPC6128 

Complete Computer System 

NAME: ______^__ 




Wordprocessing and Amsword can 
improve the productivity of everyone 
from unskilled typist to trained 
secretary. 



ADDRESS: 



POST TO: Grandstand Computers Ltd, CPO Box 2353, Auckland 

21 Great South Road, Newmarket, Auckland. Phone: 504-033 res i<b 



FINALLY, A MODEM YOU 
CAN COMMUNICATE WITH. 




Any modem can send and receive 
information. But what good is a modem if 
you can't communicate with it? 
In plain English. 
The Maxwell Modems and George, ™ our 
communications software, let you do just that. 
In fact, learning to use them is as easy as 
reading a menu. Instead of a manual, 
All the features make sense. Like auto-dialing 
directories. Automatic log-on. Auto-answer. 
Automatic error-checking. And complete unattended operation. 
Which means you can send and receive files late at night when 
the phone rates are lower. And you're asleep. 
Plus, with single keystroke dialing, you can call a database faster 
than you can say Racal-Vadic. While the handy message editor makes 
jotting a quick message just that. Quick. 
The Maxwell Modems are available in two versions, internal* or desktop. And, 
now, in three different speeds. 300, 1200 or 2400 bits-per-second. So there's 
bound to be one just right for you. And your personal 
computer. 

Best of all, they're from Racal-Vadic - the 
world's leading supplier of switched-network 
modems. The kind of modems data networks use 
to take calls from modems like yours. 
Just as soon as you get one. 
And the easiest way to do that is to call 800-4- 
VADICS for the name of the Maxwell Modem 
dealer nearest you. 

Racal-Mllgo New Zealand Limited 

PO Box 26-143, Auckland 

Phone 504-309, Auckland: Phone 730-313, Wellington 

IJJK 

From Racal-Vadic 

BURNETT 7m 





BUS 6 BYTES 




PROGRflm 

spacifli 



December 1984, Vol 4, 4. 
NEWS 

Ashton's image. Acorn's answer. Amstrad's challenge. 
IBM's mimics. Fountain's exit. 6-11 

HARDWARE REVIEWS 

The C-1 28 has renewed Steve Damold's faith in Commodore. 1 2 

This Aquarius is for all ages, says beginner Rod Prater. 17 
Hewlett Packard's latest lap micro, the HP 1 10, is definitely 

"up-market", says Peter Biggs. 44 





An apology (on behalf of the NZ 
Post Office) is due those Bits and 
Bytes subscribers who did not 
receive the November issue until 
very late in the month. Maybe it was 
because of the Christmas mail 
deluge — whatever, last month the 
Post Office delivered unsorted bun- 
dles of up to 40 copies to individual 
subscribers, resulting in re-posting 
and the delay. 

The Post Office assures us the 
problem's now been sorted out . . . 



SOFTWARE 

B-Graph's ups and downs are plotted by teacher 

Colin Marshall 

Games, played by Andrew Mitchell 



21 
50 



FEATURES 

Electronic sparks are Hying in Taiwan, reports 

Peter Parsonage. 25 

The US database, Source, is explored 27 
The way ahead for diverse operating systems, as seen by 

Pip Forer 29 

Toolbox, carried by Gordon Findlay 33 

Bumper Programme Special 57 - 68 

Machine Language expounded by Joe Colquitt 76 

THE QUIZ .Part Two. 

Qn: Would you like to win a C64, disc drive and Star Printer? 43 



COLUMNS 

Education 20 

Commodore 37 

BBC 39 

Apple 48 

Atari 49 

Amstrad 51 

Spectrum 53 

Spectra Video 54 

IBM 69 

Sanyo 71 

Sega 72 




BITS AND BYTES magazine is published monthly (excepting January) by Bits and Bytes Ltd, Denby House, third floor, 1 56 Parnell Road. 
PO Box 9870. Auckland 1 , Phone 796-776, 796-775. EDITORIAL: managing editor, Gaie Ellis; editor, Steven Searle; Wellington reporter, 
Pat Churchill, 5 Lucknow Tee, 797-193: Christchurch reporter, Dion Crooks, 66-566. ADVERTISING: Auckland-Paul Harris, PO Box 9870, 
796-776; Wellington -Marc Heymann, PO Box 27-205, 844-985; Christchurch - Jocelyn Howard. PO Box 827. 66-566. SUBSCRIPTIONS: 
First floor, Oxford Court, 222 Oxford Tee. Christchurch. PO Box 827, Phone 66-566. Manager, Mavis Shirtcliffe. SUBSCRIPTION RATE: 
$1 6 for 1 1 issues, school pupils rate $1 4. Overseas subs are $27/year surface mail, and airmail rates of $59 (Australia. South Pacific), $86 
(North America and Asia), and $108 (Europe, South America, Middle East). BOOKCLUB: manager, Dion Crooks, at above Christchurch 
address, 66-566. DISTRIBUTION INQUIRIES: bookshops to Gordon and Gotch Ltd, computer stores to publisher. PRODUCTION: graphic 
designer, Shona Wills; typesetter, Monoset; printer, Rodney and Waitemata Times. DISCLAIMERS; The published views of contributors 
are not necessarily shared by the publisher. Although all material in Bits and Bytes is checked for accuracy, no liability is assumed by the 
publisher for any losses due to use ot material in this magazine. COPYRIGHT: All articles and programmes published herein are copyright 
and are not (o be sold or distributed in any format to non-subscribers of Bits and Bytes. 



Bils & Bytes - December 1 985 5 



Micronews 



Amstrad's challenge 



Only in Spain 



The success story that is Amstrad 
progressed further when the UK compu- 
ter and audio group recently announced 
a 121 percent leap in profits for the year 
to $50m. 

The group's shares consequently 
leapt 34 cents to a high of $3.35 each. As 

chairman Atan Sugar has 50.2 percent 
of the shares, his personal fortune over- 
night increased $22.5m to $1 60m. 

A significant contribution has come 
from a dramatic leap forward in over- 
seas sales — from 13 percent of total 
sales last year to 53 percent of turnover 
this year (the group's total turnover 
being $340m). 

Sugar claims his group is poised to fill 
some up-market niches in its computer 
range. 

The Amstrad micro is now challenging 
the BBC for places in British schools. 
And in New Zealand, Grandstand Lei- 
sure, the Amstrad distributor here, is 
attempting to make the same inroads. 

The local school package includes a 
1 28 K ram micro with monitor, disc drive 
and software for less than $2000. 

Grandstand is backing its educational 
assult with a teacher- education cam- 



paign "to lessen the risk factor for 
schools buying the system, and reduce 
teachers' problems in accepting the new 
technology", according to Grandstand 
managing director Bill Fenton. 

He has organised a test and trial exer- 
cise at Henderson South Primary 
School in West Auckland in conjunction 
with the school principal, John Hope, a 
member of the Computer Education 
Society. 



The long-awaited 1 28 K Spectrum has 
finally been launched, but only in Spain. 
This means the ROM, the software and 
documentation are all in Spanish. 

Sinclair Research argues that "mar- 
ket conditions" forced the Spanish 
launch. 

In the UK, the Dixon's retail chain has 
effectively bailed out Sinclair by buying 
up stocks of the 48K version. It wouldn't 
look too clever to launch the 1 28K Spec- 
trum until these have been cleared. 



Pssst...want a cheap IBM? 



Dick Smith Electronics has just 
launched an IBM-clone retailing for 
under $2000. 

Sou reed from Multitech, a Taiwanese 
manufacturer gaining wide respect for 
its production and support abilities, the 
DSE Multitech in its basic configuration, 
of one 360 K drive. 128 K ram, MS-DOS 
2.11 and a three-month warranty, will 
cost $1995. 

The System Two version, costing 
$2495, has two 360 K drives, 256 K ram 
and includes MicroPro's EASY wordpro- 



cessing software. 

The computer's specifications are 
similar to the IBM PC (General) — 8088 
processor, running at 4.77 Mhz, 
detached keyboard... The package 
includes an IBM-compatible graphics 
interface with "flicker-free" circuitry. 

At the time of launch, in DSE's Christ- 
mas catalogue, a servicing contract with 
Tisco was still being negotiated. 

In Auckland, DSE reports that inquiry 
about the clone was strong within a few 
days of the catalogue release. 




ML SI ANNOUNCE 



Ihi'll 



This unique iow-cost product turns a single-user PC 
into a high-performance multi-user system Simply 
add on "dumb" terminals and you can run the full range 
of MLS multi-user 
software 




NEC 

HPC III 



MIISIMllHlill 



I 



/H 1 1 II III I h 'i i , , n f ■ 



!.' ».'J^ 



"■" 1 



MLS Time-sharing will be supplied only on selected machines and is initially 
available on NEC's APC III 

For more information phone M L Systems on Ak 836-0558 



6Bi1s& Bytes- December 1985 



Micronews 



AT battle hot 'Computer Olympics' 



At least 20 different manufacturers 
are scrambling for a share of the market 
created by the IBM PC AT, IBM's most 
powerful micro. 

Sperry could be setting the tone of the 
looming battle with its advertisements in 
the US which read: "The next time an 
IBM sales rep tells you he'll meet you 
halfway, you'll know what he means". 
Below this header is a picture of the new 
Sperry IT, which is claimed to be twice 
as good as the IBM AT. 

Sperry is also attempting to build on a 
fledgling dealer network in the US. 

For its sales push Compaq is equip- 
ping its dealers with a "major accounts 
sales kit" comprising a 3 minute video 
tape, a slide show and other in-store 
promotion material. The briefcase of 
promos has been consigned to more 
than 2500 dealers internationally. 

Meanwhile Hewlett-Packard has fol- 
lowed Sperry into the IBM AT field with 
heavy advertising of its Vectra — a cam- 
paign which began running last month in 
this country before the machine had 
even landed here. 

Barson Computers is releasing here 
in February the Apricot XEN, an 80286 
chip, 3.5-inch disc, Microsoft Windows 
software micro which also features an 
expansion box to enable IBM emulation. 

It is claimed to run 60 percent faster 
than the IBM PC AT, but is to be priced 
significantly below the IBM AT. 

Barson dealer manager Clive Raines 
says the dealer network is being well 
prepared for the launch of XEN, which 
will be priced from $9000, depending on 
the configuration. The 20 Meg version 
will be at least $3000 less than the cur- 
rent AT price. 

Commodores to Tisco 

With Fountain Marketing's exit from 
the home micro market, as a result of its 
Commodore distributorship terminating 
on December 4, has come the need to 
reorganise support and servicing 

All servicing is now undertaken by 
Tisco, which had previously been handl- 
ing Fountain's Commodore servicing 
commitments only outside of Auckland. 

Jnr pushed again 

Early last month IBM commenced a 
two- month advertising campaign in the 
US to stimulate sales of its PC Jnr. 

Unlike last Christmas when IBM 
blitzed all media with its PC Jnr ads, this 
year's campaign is confined to print and 
local radio. 

The ads feature the "exceptional 
value" of the micro — many retailers 
offering the Jnr for under US$700 
{$1 195)...as well as IBM's commitment 
to service the product. 




Dunedin's Computer Olympics in 
October had 105 competitors from 12 
schools pitting their programming wits 
against the clock, and each other. 

The Logo section was also a practice 
run for a nationwide contest next year — 
to involve a networking of terminals in 
halls throughout the country. 

Bits and Bytes was among the spon- 
sors of the Dunedin contest — we 
supplied competition badges for iden- 
tifying those having legitimate access to 
computers. 



The results were: 
One hour event: 1st, Bayfield High School IV. 
Philip Smith. Greg HoWen. 2nd, Bayfield High 
School III, Sang- June Park, Peler Scott. 3rd, Logan 
Park High School, Andrew Trotman, Brendon Dow- 
ney. Tony Doig. 

LOGO; 1st, Queens High School II. Julie Mackie. 
Carolyn Moen. Catherine Sansom. 2nd, Arthur 
Street School I, Nina Rillstone. Kalie Pascoe. Diane 
Petti!. 3rd, Kings High School II, Richard White, 
Jason Cox, Richard Young. Beat Ihe Buzzer: 1st, 
Bayfield High School. Greg Holden, Philip Smith. 
Andrew Robertson. 2nd, Logan Park High School. 
William Jones, Brendon Downey, John Marshall. 
3rd, Kings High School I, Alan Barr. Craig 
WcNaughton, Alistair Stevens. 




-o 



MICRO SOFTWARE HIRE CLUB 



o 



OPEN WEEKDAYS & SATURDAY MORNINGS 

Commodore VIC20 & 64 - AMSTRAD 
ATARI - BBC - SPECTRUM - ELECTRON 

BRANCHES -'- : 



•& & 



AUCKLAND 

C B CENTRE PH AA 4 6063 

1 5 A Parana Fid . TaKapuna 

THE COMPUTER TERMINAL PH ai905'13 

257 Hinemoa St . Bukenhead 

ABACUS VIDEO CENTRE PH 864- 151 

1 6 Now Bond St . Kmgsiand 

K ROAD COMPUTERS PH 399 655 

65 Pitt Street 

MANUKAU COMPUTERS <NZ> LTD PH 656-008 

Groenwoods Corner. Epsom 

SOUTH AUCKLAND COMPUTERS PH 299-603O 

2\A Gl. South P,d.. Papakura 

ROTORUA 

CHANNEL FIVE PH 89-164 

9 7 Fenton Street 

NORTHLAND 

GARNET KEENE PH 84-999 

36--40 Ratribone St , Whengaret 

TMJPO 

Kiwi Computer Services Pn (074) 63-02B 

C7- Terrys Tyre Services Runanqa Street 



WAIKATO 

COMPUTER ROOM LTD PH 437-876 

1 7 ? ward SI , Hamilton 

G/SBOHNE 

PERSONAL S BUSINESS 'COMPUTERS LTD 

PH 88-256 1 1 5 Gladstone Road 

NEW PLYMOUTH 

TWO BUSINESS CENTRE LTD PH OS 226 

635 Devon Road 

TOKOROA 

AUDIO Ht-FI SERVICES LTD PH 68-922 

Dreg horn Place 

HAWKES BAV 

COMPUTER CONECTION PH SI -96S 

16 DaJion St . Napier 

GREYMOUTH 
Centrepomt Records 
Mackay Street 
Greymoulh Ph5956 



Mail Order other than through Clubs - 



NORTH ISLAND 
Kiwi Computer Services 
P.O Boi822 
TaupoPrt(074)83 028 



SOUTH ISLAND 
Centrepoint Records 
Mackay Street 

Greymoulh Ph 5956 



# * Trade enquiries welcome * * 

A Branch Franchise may be available in your area. 

Please Contact Phone 444-8063 or write 

Box 33-196 Takapuna, Auckland. 



Bits & Bytes - December 1 96S 7 



Micronews 



T^I$8&Bl&&$ 



MODEL 

DMP-42 

Single pen 
A1/A2 Size 





Complete 

with 
adjustable 

stand 



INTELLIGENT PLOTTERS 



Houston Instrument's DM/PL™ (Digital Micro/Plotter 
Language) is built into the DMP-42. This means the user has 
unlimited graphic capabilities. DM/PL enables the DMP-42 
plotters to automatically generate curves, arcs, ellipses, and 
circles of various sizes. Straight and slanted (italic) characters 
can be drawn to follow any line or angle in 255 different sizes. 
These plotters draw solid lines, as well as combinations of 
solids, dots, and dashes. In addition, the user can plot only 
a portion of a drawing (window) when necessary or scale draw- 
ings up or down to suit his graphic needs. All these inherent 
characteristics make these plotters remarkably "intelligent". 
Call NZ Representative for name of your nearest dealer. 



S.D. MANDENO ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT CO. 

10 WOODHALL RO, EPSOM, AUCKLAND 3. (09) 600-008. 
■GRAMS' NUCLEONIC. TELEX NZ21779 (LABAK) MANDENO 



Buy one, 
get one free 

Software Architects Ltd is again trying 
its pre-Christmas sales campaign by 
offering home computers as give-aways 
to purchasers of NEC APC III comput- 
ers. 

The freebie is again a Spectravideo 
home computer, the SVI 328 package, 
valued at close to $1 000 when the cam- 
paign was launched in November. 

The freebie promotion was mail-drop- 
ped to 27,000 business box holders and 
supported with advertisements in news- 
papers. 

Software Architects' marketing direc- 
tor Chris Johnson says the two reasons 
for this type campaign were that the 
avialability of a home computer enabled 
businesses a less forbidding and seri- 
ous start to practising their computer 
system start-ups, and that most busi- 
ness people have children. 

The campaign was a success last 
year without the mail-drop. 

Johnson says Spectravideo machin- 
ery was chosen because the distributor. 
CDL, was efficient and reliable, and the 
hardware itself "reputable as a home 
computer". 



Advanced course 

Argos Data Systems is offering an 
advanced one-day course to teach more 
complicated applications Of Lotus 1 -2-3, 
including macro-programming, data 
handling and file combining. 



IF YOU'RE THINKING OF BUYING A COMPUTER FOR XMAS, 
BE CAREFULYOU DONT END UP WITH ATOY 




Sanyo 550. For S 1995, 
complete. You're buying a 
Professional PC: 
16-bit MS-DOS technology: 

128K expandable RAM and 
free software including 
basic, word processing, 
spreadsheet, tutorial, 
education and games software. 

MANY HAPPf NEW YEARS FROM 

SANYO 

G J <, ' N : 5 S ST5TEP11 

Sanyo computers. Rxjple compatible, 

Sanvg Business Systems 
Phone Auckland (09) 505-4 19 



8 Bits 8. Bytes - December 1985 



Micronews 



Open 
letters: — 



Acorn answers Electron's critics 



Dear Bits & Bytes readers, 

In order to answer several criticisms 
regarding the Acorn Electron Microcom- 
puter, I have received the following 
statement from Acorn Computers Ltd 
Cambridge UK;— 

Acorn remains fully committed to pro- 
duction and support of the Acorn Elec- 
tron microcomputer and its peripherals. 
The current reports of instability in the 
UK low priced market should not be mis- 
interpreted. 

In recent months we have rationalised 
the methods of distribution within the UK 
retail market The purpose has been to 
limit senseless cut-throat competition 
between large retail chains. 

The effect will be seen in the quality of 
resourcing that is now being given to 
customers who purchase an Electron 
this Christmas. 

The home computer marketplace is 
subject to rapid change and frequent 
innovation and therefore it would be 
impossible for Acorn to make a state- 
ment regarding the expected lifetime of 
the Electron, or what might follow it. 

We have said however, that we will 
resource spares and components for 
another three years at least, and will 
continue to supply the Electron compu- 
ter as long as there is sufficient demand 
for the product. 

Bob Coates 
Product Manager 
Acorn Computers Ltd 

I should like to add that, contrary to 
media speculation in the UK and 
elsewhere, Acornsoft has not been sold 



off. Indeed, the Acornsoft division has 
been moved into the main company 
offices in order to strengthen the 
relationship with the parent company 
and to improve the daily interchange 
between staff. 

Undoubtedly, Acorn may wish to 
supercede the Electron in time, in the 
same way that the BBC Micro super- 
ceded the Acorn Atom . That is progress! 

The company has always made a 
strong committment to compatibility but 
at this stage makes no statement on any 
new Electron-type product. Any specu- 
lation in that area would be counter-pro- 
ductive. 

It is certain however, that Acorn is 
anxious to move its image away from the 
very low-end machines, in due course. 

Barson Computers (Australasia) have 
recently completed the design of an 
Econet interface, the Plus 1e for the 
Electron, and these machines are now 
being used in conjunction with BBCs in 



network installations on both sides of the 
Tasman. 

Other companies have also become 
involved in further development work for 
the Electron. For example, an RS423 
interface with Viewdata/terminal 
software will be released on the UK mar- 
ket before Christmas and will be availa- 
ble in New Zealand early in the new 
year. 

This will enable the Electron to be 
used as a low-cost videotex terminal for 
Aditel and other videotex systems. 

Finally, a two-rom expansion board 
for the Electron Plus 1 and Plus 1e has 
been developed by an Australian com- 
pany. 

This unit allows Rom-based software, 
written for the BBC, to be used on the 
Electron. 

Joe Joyce 

Acorn Products Manager 

Barson Computers (NZ) Ltd 




THE AMSTRAD SHOP EPSOM 



VIDEOTEX with AMSTRAD, 

RS 232 Serial Interface, VMD 312 MODEM ACCESS to the 
data bases of the world view it, save it on disc, review it any 
time. Package special 664 colour, RS 232, VMD 312 menu 
software: $2,222.00 

We specialise in business software: Debtors, stock control, 
cashbook, profit & loss, data bases, word processing. We 
have the new PCW 8256. 

Mail order service second to none. Newsletter and price list 
sent regularly. 



COMPUTERS 

PHONE: AK 656-002 

P.O. BOX 26-074. Auckland 3 




Bits & Bytes - December 1985 9 




Micronews 



iii-riBjm 



r-I_FIEJ THE ERIMC 



IN STOCK NOW 

IMMEDIATE DELIVERY 

JET PAC BBC B 

was: $31.60 
now only $30.25 
incl. 95c post S packaging 

SABRE WULF BBC B 

was: $47,60 
now only: $35.70 

incl 95c posl & packaging 

ALIEN 8 SPECTRUM 48K 

was: $47.60 
now only: $35.70 
incl 95c posl & packaging 



SUPPLIED BY: 



MICRO LINK 



Software Specialists 

MICRO LINK Ltd. 
AGENT, IMPORTER.WHOLESALER 

SEND TO: 

MICRO LINK LTD. 
P.O. BOX 3266 
CHRISTCHURCH 1 

or REGD ADDRESS: 

1 1 CONNEMARA DRIVE 

BELFAST 

CHRISTCHURCH 



DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME 




Acorn cuts 
losses 

Acorn, the Cambridge microcomputer 
group rescued by Olivetti 10 months 
ago, in October reported a £22.2 million 
loss on the year — £800,000 worse than 
the company had predicted in August. 

The board explained that disposal of 
surplus computers during the interven- 
ing period had led to a more accurate 
valuation. Also, there had been a small 
increase in costs connected with 
Acorn's ending of direct marketing in the 
United States and Germany. 

Turnover in the year to June 30 was 
£77.9 million, a drop of 16 per cent. The 
profit in 1 984 was £1 0.3 million. 

Although Acorn has supplied most of 
the computers in Britain's schools, it was 
hit even more than most by the end of 
the home computer boom. 

With the comfort of government (and 
BBC) backing for its machines in the 
schools, it failed to cut prices when its 
less complacent competitors did. Now 
the Italian group Olivetti owns 79.8 per 
cent of Acorn. 

Acorn's managing director, Mr Brian 
Long, said the group was making good 
progress in reducing both its own stocks 
and purchase commitments with 
suppliers. "Availability of product is now 
moving into balance with sales projec- 
tions. " 



Hopes on 



Amiga 



Instead of the S80m estimated, Commo- 
dore US lost US$1 24m in the three 
months to June 30, on sales down by 
more than half. The losses include a 
stock write-down of $63m, which 
suggests that Commodore 64's will be 
going cheaply in the US and probably 
other markets. 

Commodore has just started a 
reported $40m advertising campaign for 
its new Amiga computer, which in 
October was reaching US dealers. 

Amiga software is. however, very 
limited, to less than a dozen program- 
mes. Commodore is effectively betting 
the company on the new machine, which 
it obtained by buying Amiga Corp. 

Amiga was formed by a breakaway 
group from Atari and other companies. 
The Amiga's special chips were 
designed by Jay Miner, who had earlier 
designed similar chips for the Atari 800. 
Commodore still faces a $100m lawsuit 
from Atari over the use of these chips. 



THEY SOLD 


A MILLION 


Four Hits: 




Beachhead 




Jet Set Willy 




Sabre Wulf 




Daley Thompson's 


Decathlon 




Now ALL Together on 




One Giant Compilation 


for 


Tape 


Disc 


Commodore 39.95 


48.00 


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Super Test 


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TO Bits & Bytes - December 1965 



Micronews 



Ashton Tate seeks IBM status 



Ashton Tate, the company manufac- 
turing dBase II and III and Framework is 
seeking to establish a more prominent 
"corporate identity" in the computer 
scene, as well as stronger support for its 
distributors and dealers. 

The US company has only just estab- 
lished an Ashton Tate office in Sydney, 
ultimately to employ about 10 staff, 
which will initiate marketing strategies 
which go beyond the "rudimentary level 
of software marketing" prevailing up till 
now. 

"The plan is to develop a more analyt- 
ical, more professional approach to the 
software market; for instance, more 
careful packaging, as happens with fro- 
zen beans," says AT's California- based 
international account executive, Leslie 
Barner, recently in Auckland. 

Ashton Tate Australia's first staffer, 
general manager Bill Bolton, who was 
previously a manager of AT-appointed 
distributor Arcom Pacific, says the 
software market will further segregate 
into either low-priced options (sold via 
"supermarkets") and value-added 
options (sold via supportive dealers). 

"Long term Ashton Tate will be doing 
the IBM act, of establishing a long term 
confidence in its products," says Bolton. 

He admits also to such a strategy 
enabling Ashton Tate to be less vulnera- 
ble to "the red-hots" which can dominate 
software sales from time to time. 

In the US, dealer support from AT has 
extended to them receiving giveaway 
cars, cruises and computers. According 
to Miss Barner, this was to retain the bet- 
ter dealers during the past year's dog- 
fight for retention of market shares. 

Another tempter for dealers is the 
offer of payments for time taken by a 
prospect's staff to attend a dealer's 
demonstration of AT software. 



ADE carve-up 

Anderson Digital Electronics, which 
went into receivership in late March fol- 
lowing the winding up of its Australian 
parent, is due for the final carve-up as 
the company's unsecured creditors 
begin organising a liquidation of ADE's 
remaining assets. 

The remaining value in ADE is mainly 
of its stock of unsold printers. ADE was a 
distributor of OKI and Qume printers and 
DEC micros. 

At its peak ADE had a staff of about 30 
in Auckland and about 10 in Lower Hutt. 
Several had left for other jobs when 
notice of receivership was posted. 

From the remaining funds likely to be 
available the unsecured creditors will be 
paid 20-50 cents in the dollar owed — 
depending on the outcome of an out- 
standing legal claim against ADE. 



Despite the revitalised dealer push, 
AT claims to be confident of holding its 
domination of the database manage- 
ment software market ■ — claiming 60 
percent of the US market, and 75 per- 
cent of Australia. 

But Ashton Tate does see battles on 
other fronts — in establishing a multi- 
user database manager called dBase ill 
Plus, of which exports have been stalled 
by a US Defence Department veto: and 
in further promoting Framework against 
Lotus Corporation's Symphony, which 
continues to dominate the integrated 
market. 



DG seeks dealers 

Last month Data General joined the 
growing list of mainframe-size corpora- 
tions who have opted to follow IBM's 
lead down-market, by initiating its own 
network of independent dealers to 
specialise in the "low-end" micro mar- 
ket. 

The move, initiated in the US , is 
in line with heavy price cuts previously 
announced for the lap-portable DG One 
and other DG equipment. 

The DG One, with 256 K ram. and two 
720 K drives, had been reduced almost 
40 percent to $5,121. The desk-top 
Dasher One, with a 1 Mb drive and 720 
K floppy, now costs $7,673. 



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Bits & Bytes - December 1985 11 



Hardware review 



Commodore C-1 28 



Crammed with commands 

By Steven Darnold 



Since the beginning Commodore has specialized in pro- 
ducing inexpensive computers. In order to keep prices down 
they have made economies. That is why the first PET had a 
calculator keyboard. That is why the VIC had a 22-column 
screen and 5K of memory. That is why the C-64 had a primi- 
tive BASIC and slow disk drive. These were all cheaper 
options. 



The problem with such economies is 
that there are always people who feel 
the cheap options ruin the computer. As 
a result, Commodore computers have 
come in for a fair bit of criticism. 

The new C-1 28 marks a turning point 
for Commodore. 

There are no compromises, no cheap 
options. 

Commodore has pulled out all the 
stops and put in every feature they could 
think of. 

It is positively bursting with interesting 
bits. The C-1 28 is so full of special com- 
mands and modes that most people will 
never use half of them. 

The C-1 28 's lavishness begins at the 
keyboard. In addition to the standard C- 
64 keys, it has a numeric pad, individual 
cursor keys, a reset button, an ESCAPE 
key, a TAB key, a HELP key and several 
other special keys. 

Commodore has thought of every- 
thing — there are even pimples on the F, 
J and 5 keys so you can be sure of your 
place when touch typing. The four 
"dead" function keys from the C-64 now 
have eight preprogrammed commands 
and it is easy to change them to what- 
ever you want. 

W/p power 

A particularly powerful addition to the 
Commodore keyboard is the use of the 
ESCAPE key to do such things as scrol- 
ling up/down, erasing to end of line/ 
screen, auto- inserting, cancelling quote 
mode, inhibiting scrolling, and setting 
tab stops. This gives you almost as 
much power (or editing the screen as a 
word processor. 

The C-1 28 displays either 40 or 80 
columns on the screen. In addition, you 
can set up a window of any size {up to 
the 80x25 maximum). 

Thus, if you wanted to simulate a VIC 
screen, you could display a 2x23 win- 
dow on the 40 column screen. Such a 
window would only cover about half the 
screen, but the text would wrap around 
just like a VIC. These windows function 
exactly like the full screen. 

There is no problem writing and edit- 




ing programs while in a window. In fact, 
I wrote a short program in a window only 
one column wide. It looked strange, but it 
worked fine. 



More accessible 



The C-1 28 contains the same 
graphics and sound chips as the C-64. 
so its potential is exactly the same. 

However, the C-1 28 makes those 
chips' capabilities much more accessi- 
ble to the average programmer. 

It contains a powerful selection of 
commands for manipulating graphics 
and sound. It takes just a few lines of 
code to produce effects that would have 
taken a week of hard programming on 
the C-64. It's a real joy to use. 

Sprites are simple to define and they 
move automatically. Geometric shapes 
are easy to draw and colour in. 

If you want text with your graphics, it 
can be printed on the graphics screen, or 
you can simply split the screen at any of 
the 200 lines. 

Sound is just as straightforward. Com- 
mands are available for you to set 
envelopes and frequencies or you can 
simply play notes by name (CDEFG 
etc). ^ 







r2&&£& 



More commands 



The graphics and sound commands 
are an important part of the C-128's 
BASIC 7.0. 

Many people complained that BASIC 
2.0 on the C-64 didn't give adequate 
support to graphics and sound. As a 
result. Commodore put numerous 
sound and graphics commands into the 
new BASIC. 

They also took the opportunity to add 
many commands for disk handling, 
structured programming and program 
editing. They have also included a good 
machine language monitor, 

BASIC 7.0 provides an almost over- 
whelming collection of commands. 
There is error trapping, in-string match- 
ing, print using, do looping, joystick 
reading, number converting, and much 
more. There is also a command to 
increase processing speed from 1 MHz 
to 2 MHz. 

Add to this all the disk and editing 
commands, and even experienced C-64 
programmers will have a huge amount 
to learn. In total I get the feeling that 
someone at Commodore said: "Stick 
everything you can think of into BASIC 
7.0", 

Tripled memory 

Not surprisingly, the C-1 28 comes 
with128Kof RAM. 

At first glance this might appear to be 
twice the memory of the C-64, but in fact 
BASIC programmers will find that they 
have more than three times the space. 



1 2 Bits & Bytes - December 1 385 



Hardware review 



The C-64 has only 38K available to 
BASIC, whereas the C-128 has 122K. 

Add this to the fact that the C-128's 
better BASIC enables much more com- 
pact program to be written, and in effect 
the C-1 28 has room for BASIC programs 
four or five times bigger than the C- 64. 

This is not true for all 1 28K computers 
— the Atari 130XE has a BASIC area of 
only 37K and the Amstrad CPC61 28 has 
only 42K. They all have the same 
amount of RAM, but the C-128 makes 
three times as much available to BASIC, 

Software 

The big problem with a brand new 
computer like the C-128 is that during 
the first year or so there is relatively little 
software. So far I have seen only a hand- 
ful of programs written tor the C-128. It 
will be some time until there is a good 
selection. 

However, Commodore has neatly 
avoided this problem. When you buy a 
C-128, you get two other computers 
"free". Under the C-1 28 keyboard, Com- 
modore has included C-64 and CP/M 
operating systems. These are the two 
most popular OS's of all time and 
thousands of programs are available for 
them. 

By putting both of them in the C-128. it 
confers an ability to run more programs 
than any other computer in the world. 

Moreover, since C-64 software is 
mostly recreational/educational and CP/ 
M software is mostly business- orien- 
tated, the combination of the two pro- 
duces an enormous range of programs. 

This gives the C-128 a remarkable 
compatibility with most 8-bit software. 

Hardware compatibility 

In order to maintain compatibility, the 
C-128 uses all C-64 peripherals. This 
includes the slow 1541 drive. 

To rectify the often-criticised slow disk 
access, Commodore has introduced a 
new disk drive. The 1 571 drive is adver- 
tised as being five times faster than a 
1 541 , but I found it could load long prog- 
rams tert times faster. 

Saving was slower, at only 50% faster 
than a 1541. 

The drive happily loads C-64 disks 
and CP/M disks (Osborne/Kaypro for- 
mat). 

When in C-128 mode it uses C-64 for- 
mat, but writes on both sides of the disk 
(1328 blocks free). 

The C-1 28 and 1571 drive put paid to 
just about every criticism of the C-fl4. 

Despite my glowing comments about 
the C-128. it is not a perfect computer. I 
could, (or example, criticize the arrange- 
ment of the cursor keys or suggest a 
command that should be in the BASIC. 



However, such comments would be 
nit-picking. Both the keyboard and the 
BASIC are very impressive. 

It would be unfair to highlight minor 
omissions when both keyboard and 
BASIC contain several delightful fea- 
tures which I never would have thought 
of. 

Besides, what we are talking about is 
a computer selling for less than $1 000. 

It would be unreasonable to expect it 
to have 640x400 resolution, to be super 
fast, or to support multi-tasking. For 
what it is, the C-1 28 is a remarkably well- 
endowed computer. 



For C-64 owners 



If you already own a C-64 system, 
then the C-1 28 is well worth considering. 



all, there are as yet few C-128 programs 
to take advantage of its features. 

There's little point in buying a C-128 
and running it in C-64 mode all the time. 

If you don't already have a computer, 
then the C-1 28 is well worth considering. 

It's a good choice for people 
interested in writing their own programs. 

It's a good choice for people 
interested in games or education (al- 
though a C-64 would be a cheaper alter- 
native). 

It's a good choice for people 
interested in combining business use 
(CP/M) with games for the kids (C-64). 

On the other hand, the C-1 28 may not 
be the best choice for people interested 
solely in running business programs. 
Certainly a businessman could get good 
service from the C-128, but he would 
probably be better off with a straight bus- 
iness computer. 




iiiiiiivaiuiti w*|<»«l W* 

wO:ii m m m m m a 




You'll be able to take advantage of the 
C-1 28' s extra features, while still having 
use of your C-64 software and peripher- 
als. 

Eventually you may want to get the 
fast disk drive or an 80- column monitor, 
but initially you should get along fine with 
your present peripherals. 

The C-1 28 is only one inch wider than 
the C-64 across the front so it will proba- 
bly fit nicely in the C-64's space. 

However, the C-128 is quite a bit 
deeper from front to back, and you'll 
probably have to push your monitor back 
a bit or put it on a shelf. 

All your cables will plug into the C-1 28 
in pretty much the same position as on 
the C-64. 

Program writing 

If you are writing programs on your C- 
64, then you'll find the C-128 much 
easier and much more satisfying. 

If you are just running other people's 
programs on your C-64, then there may 
be no real advantage in upgrading. After 



Wide appeal 



The C-128 will appeal to many people. 
Its lavish keyboard, comprehensive 
BASIC and extraordinary triple- headed 
processor give it a flexibility unmatched 
by other inexpensive computers. 

If you want to play games, it offers 
excellent graphics and sound. 

If you want to run business programs, 
it offers a numeric pad and 80-column 
screen. 

If you want to write programs, it offers 
an excellent editor and 122K bytes free. 



{Continued on page 15) 




Bits & Bytes - December 1985 13 



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i i Bits & Bytes - December 1 985 



J I ard ware review 



{Continued from page 13) 




These physical attributes, however, 
are just half the story. Perhaps more 
important is the legacy of software avail- 
able via CP/M and C-64. 

Whether for business, education, or 
recreation, the C-128 has access to an 
extremely rich collection of mature prog- 
rams. 

Commodore is to be congratulated. 
Instead of compromising and choosing 
cheap options, it has packed the C-128 
with interesting feature. It deserves to 
succeed. 




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MICROCOMPUTER SUMMARY 



Name: 
Microprocessor: 

Clock speed: 
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Input/Output: 



Keyboard: 



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Operating systems: 

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Sound: 

Cost: 
Peripherals: 



Commodore 128 
Z-80 and 8502 
(6502 compatible) 

1 28K (1 22,365 bytes free for Basic) 

32K 

buffered cassette port (500 baud), buffered RS-232 

interface (50-1 9200 baud) , parallel user port, serial 

port for standard Commodore peripherals, cartridge 

slot, audio- video ports (audio in, audio out, 

modulated video out, composite video out, RGBI 

video out) , two joystick ports. 

full-size 92-key typewriter style with numberic pad, 

auto repeat on all keys, 4 programmable function 

keys, 4 cursor keys, 8 special purpose keys, 

1 0-stroke buffer, 

25 lines by 40 characters, 25 lines by 80 characters. 

user-definable windows, upper/low case, inverse 

video. 16 colours. 

CP/M 3.0, Commodore Basic 2.0, Commodore 

Basic 7.0 (with full support for graphics and sound) 

any language available under CP/M or C-64 

Text mode - 64 standard graphics characters, up to 

256 user-definable characters 

Hi-res mode - 64,000 pixefs, 1 6 colours (but only 

2 in each 64-pixel block) 

Multi-colour mode -32,000 pixels, 16 colours (but 
only 4 in each 32-pixel block) 
Sprites- 1 6 colours (but only 4 per sprite), 
sizes from 1 pixel to 48 x 42 block, 8 priority levels 
for3-D graphics, sprite-sprite and 
sprite-background collision register 

3 voices, each totally addressable through 

9 octaves, attack/decay/sustain/release, filtering, 

modulation and white noise 

underSIOOO 

1571 fast disk drive (under S 1000), 1902 dual-mode 

monitor (under$1 000). can use all C-64 peripherals 



Review Unit from Commodore Computer (N.Z.) Ltd. 

Ratings 
( 5 highest): 

Documentation 5 

Ease of Use: 5 

Language 5 

Expansion 5 

Value for money 5 

Support 5 



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Bits & Bytes - December 1985 15 



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Hardware review 



Aquarius 

By Rod Prater 



is it a toy? 





Computers are not my thing. I use 
them (with very friendly software) and 
help some of NZ's distributors market 
them. I know the computer market well 
but when it comes to understanding the 
technicalities of the beasts I am way out 
of my depth. 

Initially it came as something of a sur- 
prise when I was asked to review the 
Aquarius. But if you think about it, I'm 
realty the obvious type to do it. 

The Aquarius was developed by 
Matell at the request of the Tomy Toy 
company of Japan, who had perceived 
the need for a relatively inexpensive 
computer designed for first-time users. 

The idea was that the computer 
should be exciting, simple to use, have 
built-in colour and Basic, be designed to 
allow extensive expansion and, most 
importantly, be set up in a way which 




would encourage the very young (start- 
ing age 4-5 years) to develop computing 
skills while having fun. 

The Aquarius I was given for review is 
the mark-l version. It has what I under- 
stand is considered "unfortunate" 
amongst computer purists — a "rubber 
ducky" keyboard. 

Let the purists say what they will. For a 
non-typist, particularly one with small, 
young hands, the keyboard on the 
Aquarius is perfectly adequate. 

The basic unit is loaded with Microsoft 
Basic and colour capabilities that would 
put many PCs to shame. 

It has input and output din' plugs for 
printer and recorder operation, a car- 
tridge port to accomodate the range of 
optional programme cartridges and 
expansion modules, a power pack and 
the leads necessary to connect to the 
family TV and power. 



basic 



With the basic unit I received a carton 
containing the following: 
1. The Mini Expander Module which 
plugs into the expansion port and 
allows the use of 4k or 16k memory 
cartridges together with programme 
cartridges. 

A thermal 80 c.p.s. 4" printer. 
A datasette. 

A 16k expansion cartridge. 
A set of joystick controls. 
Fileform, a cartridge-based 
word processor. 

Finform, a simple spreadsheet on 
cartridge. 

Extended Microsoft Basic, on car- 
tridge. 

Logo, a tutorial cartridge prog- 
ramme, 

A big box of assorted cassettes con- 
taining a whole range of games. 
The basic unit and all of the major 
peripherals came complete with very 
well written instruction books. In fact the 
instruction books are a major feature of 
the system. 



8 



10, 




Care has been taken to ensure that 
the information contained in them is pre- 
sented in a very clear and well laid out 
way. This is no doubt due to the fact that 
Aquarius was designed from the outset 
as a tutorial computer system. 

Having transported all of the bits 
home, taken over the lounge floor and 
commandered the family TV, I began my 
voyage of discovery into the world of 
"toy" computers. 

I loved it, and so did everyone else 
who came by — despite any initial pre- 



judices, they became intrigued and 
involved. 

At teast half of the enjoyment of the 
excercise came from the discoveries we 
made along the way. As soon as the unit 
was plugged in and the TV tuned we 
were greeted by a welcome message 
and the request that we type in our 
name. 

From then on we felt that the system 
and instruction books were leading us 
through a gentle process of learning. 

Once we had experimented with the 
Basic language capabilities, the 16-col- 
our drawing functions, and learned to 
mix the two we decided it was time to try 
out the expansion module cartridges 
and peripherals. 

The printer (also made by Matell) con- 
nected easily and proved to be very effi- 
cient. Not what you would term a "q ual ity 
printer", but just right for the production 
of hard copies for filing or sending notes 
to mates. 

The datasette (this was a Dick Smith 
model) did its job efficiently and gave us 
the ability to store programmes and 
graphics and more importantly (at least 
for one of us) the ability to load the 
games cassettes. 

Fiieform turned out to be a very easy 
to use and simple word processor with a 
simple "mail merge" capability and filing 
system. Once again the friendliness of 
the programme is obviously designed 
for young users and we first-timers had 
no difficulty in coping with it. 

Finform is an efficient calculator and 
simple spreadsheet. More of a learning 
tool than a useful software package, but 

(Conttnued on page 19f 



Bits & Byles- December 1985 17 



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One less Uiingtx) 
wMTvabouL" 




Oxford Pascal for the 
Commodore 64 and BBC Micro 



Oxford Pascal 

Oxford Pascal is a full extended 
implementation of standard Pascal 
running on the Commodore 64, and 
the BBC computer. The compiler 
supports every feature of the Pascal 
language and is capable of compiling 
very large and complex programs. 

The Oxford Pascal package, 
which is supplied in an attractive 
carrying case, comprises a 100 page 
manual, a disk and, in the case of 
the BBC version a 1 6K ROM. 

Speed 

Oxford Pascal compiles down to 
fast, compact P-code, providing the 
real speed and power of Pascal, 
together with the ability to compile 
very large programs. 

Because it compiles into P-code, 
Oxford Pascal reduces programs into 
the most compact form possible. In 
fact it allows more code to be packed 
into a micro than any other language. 

IB Bits & Bytes -December 1985 



Features such as the CHAIN (overlay) 
command and the LINKER allow 
complete exploitation of the memory 
available, 

Extensions 

In addition to the entire Pascal 
language, Oxford Pascal features a 
range of Graphics and sound 
extensions designed to make 
maximum use of the computer. 
Considerable care has been taken in 
each implementation to aliow full use 
of all graphics facilities and modes. 
User written machines code, which 
can be called with parameters, is 
supported and fully documented 

Oxford Pascal also provides 
numerous extensions such as 
hexadecimal arithmetic and bit 
manipulation, random numbers, 
internal clock access, input of string 
variables and program chaining. 

Other Pascal Benefits 

• Oxford Pascal ideal for education 



• Easy interactive learning and 
debugging 

• Complete user manual 

• Friendly error messages 

• Powerful editor 

• Stand alone code 

Retail Price per package, 
$179.00 

Mailorder welcome. 
Cheque with order. 
Dealer enquiries welcome. 




a First 
Access 

First Access Limited 

P.O. Box 26-287 

1 NgaireAve, Epsom, Auckland. 

TAZJ57 



Hardware review 



(Continued from page 1 7) 




ideally suited to its primary purpose of 
computing education. 

Extended Microsoft Basic used in 
conjunction with the 16k expansion car- 
tridge really opened out the capabilities 
of the machine and is obviously 
designed to take young users to the next 
level of competence. By connecting this 
cartridge it is possible to undertake a 
more complicated range of program- 
ming tasks. 

Logo proved to be probably the most 
exciting cartridge of all. Very cleverly 
written, this programme, by the use of 
excellent graphics capabilities, 
advances the young user by stages to a 
quite high level of competence. It is all 
done in a way which is designed to keep 
interest levels high while at the same 
time offering encouragement by 
achievement and reward. 

The games cassettes were what you 



would expect. From the quite standard 
"Hangman" to a very good version of 
"Muncher", the games proved to be a lot 
of fun. In fact as a games playing unit 
alone Aquarius is worth the purchase 
price. 

My view of the Aquarius is that it's 
good value, particularly if purchased for 
the purpose it was designed: as a home 
computing education tool it has few 
competitors in its price range. It's well 
worth considering — if only to keep small 
hands away from your "grown-up" PC. 



The Aquarius System 


supplied was 


provided by Dick Smith Electronics. 


Retail prices are: 




Basic Aquariusunit 


S 99.00 


Thermal Printer 


$1 79,00 


Dick Smith Datasette 


$64.95 


1 6k expansion cartridge 


$109.95 


Joysticks/Mini expander 


$ 89.95 


Fileform cartridge 


$ 79.95 


Extended basic cartridge 


$ 79.95 


Logo cartridge 


$ 69,95 


Games cassettes 


$12.95 


or 


$ 18.95 



MICROCOMPUTER SUMMARY 


Name: 


Aquarius 


Manufacturer: 


Radofin Electronics- Hong Kong 


Microprocessor: 


Z-80 


Clock Speed: 


3.5 MHZ 


Memory: 


2K, expandable to 32K. 


Input/Output: 


Cassett interface, T.V, output, serial printer output. 


Keyboard: 


Rubber dudey , 49 keys, querty. 


Display: 


40 columns x 24 lines. 320 x 1 92 pixels, 1 6 colours. 


Language: 


Microsoft Basic 


Sound: 


One sound channel 


Reviewers ratings: 


Use of 5, expansion 4, support4, docementation 5, 


(5 highest) 


language 5, value for money 5. 


Reviewed unit supplied by Dick Smith Electronics. 



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Bils & Bytes - December 1985 19 



Educate i 1 
Monkey Academy 

by Barbara Bndger 

Here is the most marvellous piece of 
educational (in the sense of encourag- 
ing children to persevere with learning 
basic facts) software that I have seen. 
The excellent graphics, jaunty tunes and 
sound effects combine to make a very 
appealing and addictive game that had 
my two sons striving to cope with maths 
questions 2-4 years ahead of them 
schoolwise. 

There are five types of questions 
available, addition, subtraction, multipli- 
cation, division, and a combination of 
these, and the level of difficulty is about 
appropriate for 10 to 1 2 yr olds. 

A monkey is guided about the screen 
searching for the correct answer by 
jumping up to unroll scrolis one of which 
will have the correct answer. While 
doing this he must evade a crab which 
appears periodically and has to leap 
amongst 3 different levels during his 
search. The crab can be evaded by 
jumping over it or by fetching a piece of 
fruit and hurling it at him. Once the cor- 
rect scroll is found it has to be delivered 
to the monkey's girlfriend waiting anxi- 
ously at the top of the screen. 

After getting 3 answers correct you 
move into a different stage with an 
altered screen layout and a different 
point o( entry for the crab and have the 
chance to alter the type of question you 
want to answer. There is a time limit at 
each stage and the faster you complete 
each stage the more bonus points you 
get. 

The ROM cartridge is produced by 
Kjonami and costs $85. 1 wish there was 
more of this standard of educational 
software and that the price was not so 
high. 




A sound keyboard 

COLOURTONE KEYBOARD $99 95 
A Review by A. R Mitchell 
Supplied by Fountain Marketing. 



lis keyboard is an attractive item of 
hardware which contains a full two 
octave range. Also on the board is a 
'harp' strip and a row of 14 'buttons'. It 
plugs into the first joystick port and 
comes complete with instruction book- 
let, rapid reference card and the 
software disk. 

The keyboard first needs to be tuned 
to the C64 and this is quite simple with 
the programme supplied, and the on 
screen instructions. Then the music 
making can begin. 

The CTONE programme is the basis 
of the Colourtone Keyboard's operation. 
With this loaded you are able to listen to 
the tunes provided or play along with 
them or just play solo. 

There are 13 tunes which can be 
played on 8 instruments in any of 13 
scales — that's quite a combination. 

You can play along with any of the 
tunes, hear what you've created played 
back and then save it to disk. However, 
you can only save 13 tunes; one crea- 
tive' version of each of the original tunes. 

There is included as a tune, a met- 
ronome which can be turned off so that 
all you save is what you have created. 

There's a photo of the keyboard in the 
Fountain User News in the July issue of 
Bits and Bytes. 

The 14 buttons' across the top are 
your mode selectors and although the 
handbook only covers 1 1 of them, there 
is an extra page called "bonus features" 
which outlines the other three plus some 
extra computer keyboard functions. 

One feature I liked was the harp" strip. 



This is a strip between the buttons and 
the keys (refer photo) which acts as a 
continuous keyboard. 

The good feature is that this harp will 
only play the "sweet" notes, that is, only 
the notes that are used by the key that 
the current tune is played in. 

That means if you have no music 
sense at all. you can still play along with- 
out sounding really strange. 

It's also possible to turn off the sour 
notes on the keyboard itself to do the 
same thing. 

Two major criticisms: — 

Fi rst , the reaction time of the keyboard 
is too slow regardless of what speed you 
have the tune playing. 

I guess the computer is busy playing 
the tune as well as scanning the joy port 
to the extent that it looks away from the 
port for intervals that are too long. 

I have some musical ability but could 
not get the keyboard to play along in time 
with the tune at most reasonable 
speeds. 

Second, for the price there are not 
enough tunes available — 12 tunes 
(plus the metronome) soon bored my 
family and I could see the keyboard 
being left in the corner and forgotten. 
Surely it would have been not too difficult 
to put more tunes on the disc accessed 
by combination of button and key? 

In general then, a good concept mak- 
ing sound' use of the SID chip but which 
could have done with a little more 
thought and a cheaper price tag. in the 
writer's opinion. 



fulttetit 

M 55/80 



WORD PROCESSOR £appic li+ 
MAIL MERGE/SORT lie He 

SPELLING CHECKER (optional) 
ASSEMBLER <6502/e 5 co2) 



O Announcing ....FULLTEXT 55/80 version 4. 
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Checker with 45000 word New Zealand 
dictionary. Add up to 7000 of your own. 

O The complete word processing system! 



♦ Requires 64K memory DOS based 

♦ Gives 55 charade's per line on 

screen and upper and lower case 
even on an Apple 11+ . 

♦ uses 80 c nli jiiui card if present to 

give SO characters per line. 
¥ Com pa ti [He with tuju lie, lie keyboard 

Compensates lot missing 

features of ]| + keyboard 
^Type^ahead buflor. Preview mode. 

Built-in Mailmerge'Mailsort. 

Wordsoit and concordance. 

Calculator! 



Fulltext 55/80 $125 

Spelling Checker upgrade ... $ 55 
Fulltext with Spelling Checker. . $175 



See your Apple dealer or write. 

SPACIFIC SOFTWARE 

POBox 8035. Dunedin, Tel 738 396 



if. All menurprompi-lme driven using 
key-tellers (I. for Load. E for Edit. 
F lor Find. D for Delete). 

-^ Full word processing Editor 

Jf Allows insertion ol any control 
characters in text, giving simple 
and full conirol ol your printer. 

^ Advanced lormattmg options: page 
numbering, page headings, 
indentation, justilicaflon, 

definitions auto-indenls/auto- 
numbering ot |sub-| sections and 
(sub) paragraphs [ 1 2 3 etc 
or a) b) c) ale] 

^Comprehensive 135 pace manual 
with lull descriptions. Disk 
includes SELF TEACH file lor last 
learning 

¥- Simple to learn; powerful lo use. 



20 Bits & Bytes - December 1985 



Software Review 



B/Graph's ups & downs 



by Colin Marshall 



System: C64, disk drive. Printer. 

Programme: B/Graph 

Retail: NZ $49,95 

Rating: 5/5 

Distributor: Commodore NZ. 

B/Graph is a graphics charting and 
statistical analysis package for the 
businessman, educator and home user. 

And while retailing at $49.95, it has to 
be a gift. 

Over a year in the programming, B/ 
Graph gives the user an extremely use- 
ful utility that provides high resolution 
screen graphics and printouts of any 
numerical data. The printouts are of a 
quality expected on much more expen- 
sive systems. 

B/Graph allows configuration of the 
user's system to cater for a variety of 
printers, drive numbers and screen col- 
ours. 

The manual for this software is 
exemplary. 

All options are clearly explained. Pic- 
tures of the screen show you what 
should be happening in front of you. 

The tutorials are simple, clear and 
easy to follow with disk based sample 
files for each type of graph. Even the 
errors you could possibly make are 
detailed to help you avoid them. This 
manual is a standard other companies 
should look up to. 

Modules 

B/Graph is written as a series of mod- 
ules on a single disk. These modules are 
all menu driven and have a loading time 
of around two minutes. 

The graphing package is the first main 
block of the programme and is driven 
with an easy to follow menu. There is a 
large variety of graphing forms availa- 
ble. Bar graphs can be produced in bar, 
3D and segmented bar forms. Point and 
line graphs are straightforward to use. 

Scatter, market, and pie graph options 
all add to the range instantly useable. 

Data entered to create a graph is 
entered on to a graph data record. 
These can be saved to disk using up 
very little disk space (2-5 blocks), 

Data can be recovered, manipulated, 
exchanged and erased. Once the data 
has been entered the output can be cus- 
tomised to the user's liking. Grids can be 
imposed, overlays can be put in place, 
colours can be selected, labels changed 
and areas under line and point graphs fil- 
led in. 

Anything created on the screen and all 
data pages can be dumped to the 
printer. 




One aspect that every politician and 
salesman will like is the rescaling func- 
tion. When you have entered your data 
the programme asks for the type of 
graphic you require. 

Your data is presented to you on the 
screen in what the programme analyses 
as the most applicable scaling. For 
many, as most politicians have proven, 
the direct presentation of data does not 
always portray facts as we would like 
them shown. B/Graph allows the user to 
adapt the scale and interval of the charts 
to their own liking. 

For sales presentations, committee 
work, classroom displays and the like 
this is excellent material. 

Photocopying the printouts and 
adding a splash of colour results in a 
highly professional presentation. 



Saves images 



B/Graph also has the ability to save 
graphs and charts as images and effec- 
tively present a slide show of data at the 
speed and rate you require on the 
screen. As colours are saved as well as 
the data these displays can be made to 
be very impressive. 

Screens can be superimposed on 
each other. There is also the ability to 
place text on the screen in a selection of 
four sizes. 

The type of graph is changed easily. 
For example, the line graph can be 
changed to a bar graph or pie chart with 
a single key stroke. Most charts are 
interchangeable. 

(Continued en page 23 



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Bits & Bytes - December 1 985 21 



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■.^HfOEsaji 


Raid dn Bungling Bay 


" 


66-00 


SDUBBELL15 


CombJi lynn 


14-rs 


ASECA55 


Super Zaxxan D 


74-75 


BMICRGPa65 


Castle Ouesl T 


60-25 


CBRO0EBB19 


Raid an Bunding Bay 
Inter national Tennis 


D 


66-00 


SDUBHELL5*i 


Dulhpil 

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38-80 


ASS1IS 


Carnbai Leade; D/T 


71-75 


BMICR0PO75 


Castle Que 31 D 


71-75 


:comhsdo-3 


" 


?9-95 


S ELITE 25 


34-75 


ASS 25 


Bailie For NDrmandy D/T 


75-75 


BSQUIRBE15 


Super Soil 


37-50 


CCDMMDD025 


Inlernjlional B/Ball 


■ 


13'30 


SELIIE15 


Dukes 01 Hazard 


30-30 


ASUBL0GI15 


Flighl Sjmuialor ll D 


133-50 


BSUPERIO'5 


Rocky 


39-75 


CC0SMIC18 


Super Huey 


7 


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SELIIE35 


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CC B L 15 


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Blue Man zorjl D 


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BULTIMAT15 


Alien B 


19-75 


CD1GITAL15 
CDIGI7AL25 
COO WARM 5 
CDOMARK25 

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Ccrdename Mai II 
Gwnoal Lynx 
Brian Bioodaxe 


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CEL AfllS!! 


Hard Hal Mack 


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RACCESS56 


Beachead D 


59-95 


CEL'ABTS25 


MULE 


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64-09 


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39-95 


RACCESS35 


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RACCESS25 


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Impossible Mission 





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Hareraiser [Preludef 


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SLEISUBE25 


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R0IGITAL15 


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36-90 


CFERRAVTI5 


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Monopcly 
Bed W-aar 


40-15 


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VK7E7I5 


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7;7rMD'...: 


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9 


41-95 


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RELITE15 


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SMAB7ECH35 


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31-75 


REL1TE25 


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39-75 


SMEL80JR15 


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31-95 


RELI7E35 


Alrwoll D 


19-95 


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13-25 


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34-75 


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H/ Hikers Guide Galajry 


D 


94-00 


SMICBOSP15 


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Sub Hunlef 


r !4-75 


VS0F/PB0I5 


Space Joust T 


29-75 


RWAB!ECHt5 


B J 's Superstar 


39-95 


CLEtSUBEIS 


Scrabble 


7 


73-95 


SMICR0MAI6 


[ 30-30 


V50F/PB025 


Penis Di Willy * 16K T 


29-75 


RMELBOUB'5 


Way ol Exploding Fisl T 
Di 'j Detaihipn 


39-95 


CILAMA5315 


Mama Llama 


" 


37-50 


SMIKB0GE31 


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1 !4-95 


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29-75 


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44-75 


w*«TicRts 


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! 49-75 


VS0F/PBO15 


Spiac* Swarnr T 
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BSEGA06 


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35-00 


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I 19-75 


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RSEGA36 


Buck Rogers 


39-95 


CVE. K.iJ,'- 


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74-75 


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I 49-75 


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59-95 


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" 


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Everyone's a waiiy 


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74-75 


VTH0RNEM14 


Computer War 


29-75 


RSEGA76 


Tapper D 


59-95 


CMINDGAMI5 


7 


15-55 


SOASI515 


I 5315 


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39-95 


CMIND5CA16 


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7 


29-95 


SOCEAN15 


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r 10-15 


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Tower Of bnl 


29-75 


RSEGAB6 


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59-95 


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Splttrre 40 


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19-95 


SOCEAS25 


Maich Day 


r 33-60 


VIH0RNEMJ5 


Tank Commander 


29-75 


RS0FJPR015 


Jel Set Wniy 


36-90 


CMOJIOII115 


Rock lords BiDt 


7 


15-55 


S, :>i' 7 A S j r 


Hunchback ii 


r 30-30 


V7MORNEM55 


Fourth Encounler 


12-95 


RIAS*SEI25 


Super Pipeline II 


36-90 


COASI5I5 


While Lightening 


7 


97-95 


SO( EANti 


Daley TlhDmpsart S/Tesi 
France Goes To h/Wooo 


I 31-50 


VTH0RNEM65 


River flescue 


19.95 


R-HEEDGEl: 


Brian Bloodajtc 


49-75 


HMSisa 


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149-75 


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VTH0H15 


Oily T 

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34-95 


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19-75 


CDCEAMB 


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7 


19-95 


SOCEAI<65 


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I 31-76 


VULTIMATI5 


27-50 


BULT MA72! 


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19-75 


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Frankie Goes To H* Wood 7 

Hunch hack ii T 

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Tim Love's Cricket 


19-95 
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105-85 
15-60 
15-60 


SODIN15 

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Nodes Or Yesoti 
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Buck Rogers 


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5aima/oom 


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SSIXS1X6I5 


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15-60 


SSOFTA1DI5 


Soliaid 


T 33 75 












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111-00 


SSOF7PB025 


Lode Runner 


T 49-75 








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Blue Max 200\ 


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SSOF/PB015 


j«t Sei Willy II 


T 30-30 












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Cadcam warricr 


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5 - FULL LISTS OF SOFTWARE TO HIRE AND BUY 



22 Bits & Bytes- December 19B5 



Software Review 



(Continued from page 21) 

There are some restrictions. 3D bar 
graphs wilt only be produced for up to 1 9 
bars on one screen. One hundred data 
points on the x axis is the maximum 
accepted, though this is five screens of 
data. The labelling facilities vary accord- 
ing to the option. Up to three factors can 
be produced for any one graph or chart. 

Two market graphs are available. The 
Tic market graph and the Connected 
market graph. People following the 
stock market will be familiar with the 
high, low, close model these two graphs 
use. By entering stock market move- 
ments the amateur market follower can 
produce charts and predictions similar in 
nature to those of top financial houses. 



Analysis 



The second part of the B/Graph pac- 
kage is the analysis package. The man- 
ual makes a good job of summarising 
some of the main statistical formulas 
and theorums used today; however, as 
the manual recommends, it is best to 
spend some time reading up and learn- 
ing about these before diving in with both 
feet. The manual supplies a bibliography 
of recommended texts. 

Every Masters student at university 
should have a copy of this programme. 
Rather than spend endless nights wait- 
ing to use the university computer, why 
not do the same work at home (and not 
have to pay for the coffee!). 

T-Tests (remember students?) and F- 
Tests are catered for, along with a quick 
summary of degrees of freedom, var- 
iance, mean, T and % above values, all 
of which can be calculated. Special test- 
ing can be carried out when there is a 
limit on the data to be tested. 

Social statistics rely heavily on the Chi 
square test. B/Graph can only handle 
two factors but a cunningly written utility 
enables the user to get around that prob- 
lem. 

Normal distribution and Poisson dis- 
tribution probabilities can be calculated 
using the appropriate options as can the 
Binomial distribution probability. 

Standard statistics, means, medians, 
variances and standard deviations are 
all catered for and can be charted. 
Skewness and Kurtosis has long been a 
patn to analyse but is clearly displayed 
and the amounts calculated. Quartiles 
and range values are other bread and 
butter chores to the statistician that are 
equally well covered. 

B/Graphs Correlation analysis section 
allows you to test the correlation bet- 
ween any two factors and is a very 
handy utility for anyone involved in 
social science testing. 

Regressions are often harder work 
than they would seem to the layman. 
(Regressions involve finding a formula. 



60 



Distance. Orbital & 
Escape velocities 







K 




H 


45- 


/* 




H 


— 


K 




V. 


30- 


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hence a curve, that will match a series of 
points.) B/Graph has an entire section 
directly related to regressions and gives 
the user the opportunity to try fitting their 
own selected formula to their series of 
points or data. A knowledge of how for- 
mulas are entered in Basic is essential to 
this part of the programme. 

Conclusions 



B/Graph is recommended because of 
its clear and concise manual, in plain 
English, with ample disk-based exam- 
ples to follow. 

The screen menus are easy to follow 
and understand. 

Once data is entered it can be man- 
ipulated and reused in a large variety of 
ways. 



A selection of graphic forms are avail- 
able that can be printed, viewed and 
even made into a slide show. 

The analytical package is the solution 
to many students' and scientists' prob- 
lems with computer access time. 

The businessman and salesman can 
use the package to promote and display 
clearly a variety of promotions and data. 

In schools, charts and graphs are 
used dai ly at a great cost in time . but with 
B/Graph this would be a thing ot the 
past. 

Finally, we have a product that the 
user is in control of... and doesn't cost 
the earth. 



"X 



SAVE OVER $100. 00 

EXPORT QUALITY COMPUTER DESK 




Features: 

Adjustable Monitor Shelf) — Drawer Double Door 
Cupboard with adjustable Shelf Modern Styling with 
Rounded Corners Easily assembled Kitset. 

Colour Brochure Available 



SOUTH AUCKLAND 
COMPUTERS 

& ELECTRONICS 

214 Great South Road — P.O. Box 720 Papakura 
Auckland — Phone: 299-6030 



Normal Price $454 
OUR PRICE $349 

(Limited Quantity) 



Mail order anywhere in N.Z. 
Freight outside Auckland $10.00 

Bank Card — Visa Card Accepted 



BitsS Bytes- December 198523 



^commodore 

^™ The Market Leader 
does it First Again! 

Now Every Home, Business and 
School can afford a Real Computer! 




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24 Bils & Bytes - December 1985 



PC Report 



Sparks flying in Taiwan 

by Peter Parsonage 

In October I spent a week in Taiwan visiting the "Electronics 
Trade Show" organised by the China External Trade 
Development Council. To say that it was interesting would be 
a gross understatement. It was outstanding. In 22,000 square 
metres there was displayed an enormous variety of electronic 
products. Computers and their peripherals were displayed 
alongside medical, communications, automation and test 
equipment. Domestic and industrial equipment vied for space. 



Bits and Bytes' last two issues 
reported first-hand accounts o! the 
major computer shows in San Fran- 
cisco and London — now we take a 
look at Taiwan's big electronics 
show, which is to be expanded five- 
fold next year. 



People of all nationalities crowded 
every display. Many millions of $US for 
order transactions changed hands daily. 
Coming from a small country like N.Z. I 
was very impressed. 

I systematically examined the whole 
exhibition area, making notes of dis- 
plays worth returning to. 

Over the following days I visited 
selected displays and discussed their 
products. Without exception I found the 
Taiwanese people to be very courteous 
and helpful. 

They are always keen to transact bus- 
iness and the only really difficult part was 
to determine when their prices were 
competitive. 

Some will fall 



As in any marketplace there were 
some poorly designed products. Taiwan 
is just getting established in the elec- 
tronics field and there are many com- 
panies that are likely to fall by the 
wayside in the process. 

The vast majority of electronic com- 
panies in Taiwan would fit our descrip- 
tion of "small business", with a typical 
staff size of 20 and a turnover of about 
$US4 million. 

Growth prospects are phenomenal, 
for those who survive, and frequently 
exceed 100% p.a. for consecutive 
years. 

The products I saw covered the entire 
range. 

Overall, the quality was good with 
general weaknesses in presentation 
(particularly eye-appeal for the AusU 
NZ/US markets} and in mechanical 
componentry. 

Printers I looked at were not competi- 
tive with Japanese equipment. 

Many components used were 
sourced in Japan, e.g. blank circuit 
boards, keyswitches, disk drives. 

I did see a few well made mechanical 
items and I am sure that within a year or 
two Taiwan will have developed the 
necessary expertise to compete 
worldwide with units such as disk drives. 




Two advantages 

At present Taiwan enjoys two major 
advantages over US manufacturers. 

The labour costs are very low (about 
20% of US rates), and this is the advan- 
tage often cited. 

But the other advantage may prove 
more important in the long term: the total 
dedication of the Taiwanese employees. 

They do not really understand the 
meaning of the word "holiday". They 
commonly work ten hours a day, six 
days a week. If overtime is required they 
do it — no mention of extra payment, 
conditions of employment etc. 

Many workers see their employing 
company as an extension of them- 
selves. 

Personal decisions are frequently 
made only after considering "how will it 
affect my company?" 

In speaking with employees I couldn't 
help wondering how different NZ would 
be if their attitude to work prevailed here. 

It is not practical in an article like this to 
discuss the quality of life in Taiwan but I 
enjoyed it and could live there quite hap- 
pily. 

Plant visits 



While in Taiwan I had the opportunity 
to visit some manufacturers' premises. 
Two in particular stood out in my mind. 



One was Multitech {now MSC Group), 
the largest manufacturer of personal 
computers in Taiwan. The other was 
Trun Sole Enterprise Company (TSE), a 
typical small computer manufacturer. 

A comparison between the two is 
shown in the table below: 



Years of operation 

Turnover (1984) 

Staff 

% Technical Staff 



MSC TSE 

9 3 

US$80m US$4m 

1200 20 

60 40 



Not just copyists 

Multitech is clearly a leader in Taiwan. 
They spend large amounts on research 
and lead the world in developing certain 
products. 

To say that the Taiwanese can only 
copy is completely wrong. They do have 
very skilled and capable engineers. 

An example of innovation at Multitech 
was their "Dragon Project". 

This provides the Chinese people with 
computers and software using a 
reduced Chinese character set. Results 
I saw were very impressive. 

Now where could you hope to find a 
bigger market? 

(Continued on page 26) 
Bits & Bytes - December 1 985 25 



PC Report 



{Continued tmmpage 25) 

At Multitech's factory in the Hsinchu 
Science Park I saw monochrome 
monitors with a resolution that was 
unbelievable. 

The efforts of companies such as Mul- 
titech enhance the reputation of the 
whole Taiwanese electronics industry 
whilst providing a model for smaller 
companies. 

It is interesting to note that their start- 
up capital nine years ago was only 
$US25,000. The owners' equity is now 
over $US1 2 million! 

Quality control 

TSE has only been in operation for 
three years. What they lack in buildings 
and plant they make up for in hard work 
and careful quality control. 

They are very conscious of the growth 
paths open to them and realise only too 
well the need to produce a first-class 
product. 

Companies such as TSE obviously 
hope to emulate the progress of Mul- 
titech. 

The manufacturing methods of the 
two companies were surprisingly simi- 
lar. 

High quality Japanese boards are 



stuffed (that means the components are 
inserted in their correct locations) on an 
assembly line using Taiwanese labour. 
Soldering is done using a solderbath. 

Rigorous tests 



Muititech socket only MOS devices 
whereas TSE socket almost all devices 
using good quality sockets. 

Boards are visually inspected and 
then tested. 

Muititech use a sophisticated automa- 
tic testing machine, TSE plug in the 
necessary test equipment. 

Both companies then subject every 
board to a rigorous 24 hour test period. 
Their standards of quality control ensure 
an overall defect rate below 1 % . 

Many companies in Taiwan have 
despatched equipment for extended 
periods with zero defects. As an elec- 
tronics engineer I can appreciate just 
how difficult that is to achieve. 

With international companies such as 
IBM and Philips now manufcturing or 
sourcing equipment in Taiwan there is 
no room for copyright infringement or 
substandard workmanship. 

The stories of hand-soldered boards 
etc. are myths. 

The reputable companies in Taiwan 
plan to stay just that way — reputable. 




Editor's Note: Peter returned form 
Taiwan with Australasian distribution 
rights (including New Zealand) for 
TSE's 256K ram, dual drive, 16-bit IBM- 
compatible PC called the HCPtOOO 



SEKONIC 



XY PLOTTER 




• 6 colour automatic pen change 

• On board Centronics interface 

• 200 mm/sec axial pen speed 

• 0.1 mm step size 

• 8 directional position keys 

• 24 stored plotting commands 

• RS232C & IEEE 488 interface adaptors available 

SPL-400: an extremely competitively priced digital X-Y plotter for the 
home enthusiast, draughtsperson or the latest in C.A.D. systems. 



SOLE NEW ZEALAND AGENT 



DEALER ENQUIRIES WELCOME 



E.G. Gough Ltd 

Auckland: Phone 763 174 

Wellington: Phone 686 675 

Chfistchurch: Phone 798 740 

Dunedin: Phone 775-823 

E C GOUGH 

ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION DIVISION 




26 Bits & Bytes - December 1 9B5 



Communications 



A look at The Source 

By Paul White. 



The most powerful resource any per- 
sonal computer can have is a larger and 
less personal computer — well perhaps 
that's not absolutely true, but "The 
Source" is certainly a storehouse to 
impress any computer buff. 

A database like source is run by sev- 
eral mainframes connected to the public 
telephone lines, via Packet Switch (Pac- 
net in our case) and offering users vast 
quantities of information, and an equally 
varied ways of getting it. 

The Source, based in Virginia, U.S.A. 
serves around 500,000 users through- 
out the world including the 16 in New 
Zealand. 

Upon paying your user subscription 
costs, Source sends you a small 250 
page users guide, a reference guide, an 
account number and your personal 
password (along with warnings about 
not giving your password to anyone 
except upon Login, as any usage of your 
account is at your cost). 

The User Guide reveals Source 
divided into six main parts, each acces- 
sed from the main menu. 

One part is the news: giving a 'Bulle- 
tin' for the top news stories of the hour, 
or 'Bizdate' for the top business and 
financial news, or 'Sports' for the lead- 
ing sports stories, or 'Focus' for an over- 
all view of the day's events. 

The stories also appear summarised 
in "News at a Glance". 

All items may be scanned for interest, 
selected from menu, or retrieved by use 
of keywords, such as 'Rainbow Warrior' 
for example, and then the article in full 
can be read. 



Getting lost, or into a long 
search, is easy. 



Business and investing is also 
covered, Source permitting online 
investing, quotes for stock options and 
portfolio reviews. 

Communications is one of Source's 
more interesting areas. It is from here 
you can communicate with other mem- 
bers of Source, and to a limited extend 
the outside world. 

As a member, you are given a mailbox 
where all SourceMait will be sent. 

SourceMatl enables you to send cor- 
respondence in various ways — 
Express, Carbon copy, Blind copy and 
Acknowledgement Requested are 
some of the options. 

You can create distribution lists for 
regular multiple mailings, i.e. to mem- 
bers of a User Group who are also mem- 
bers of the Source. 



Mail is sent by typing in the I.D. of the 
recipient, then the message, which you 
are able to edit, send, read or print. 

As well as electronic mail, Source also 
provides Mailgram messages, and E- 
Com. Mailgram allows you to send 
Western Union telegrams around the 
world from your own micro. 

E-Com stands for Electronic Compu- 
ter-Originated First Class Mail, and 
allows you to send a First Cass letter to 
anyone in the U.S, including Alaska and 
Hawaii. 

I think by now we've all heard about 
Bulletin Boards, and Source has60-plus 
of them, covering antiques, aviation, 
travel, the various makes of personai 
computers, games, adventures, sports, 
hobbies, ham-radio, music, education 
and other topics. 

Bulletin Boards allow you to scan, or 
read messages left by other users, and 
you in turn may leave replies or ques- 
tions. These areas are for public view- 
ing, i.e. everyone has access to them. 



Chatting 



Online "chatting" is perhaps the 
most interesting way to make Source 
contacts — you can chat to anyone 
concurrently using Source. 

Typing "online" calls on screen a 
list of all the people using the Source 
at the same time as you, and the 
members directory will give you their 
interests. 

By simply typing "chat" and their 
I.D. number you can interrrupt a per- 
son with a friendly greeting and ask if 
they would like to chat. The other per- 
son can then break out of what they 
were doing, or ignore you, or type 
"chat-off" to prevent any further inter- 
ruptions. But on the whole Source 
members are a pretty friendly lot. 

Some regarded the one-to-one 
affair too restrictive and so created 
Computer Conferencing, whereby 
any number of members could chat 
at once, like a discussion. 

From there its grown into adver- 
tised topics for discussion. 

A conference can also be held pri- 
vately. 

Source members list in a directory 
their occupations, interests, city, and 
country along with their type of com- 
puter; you can scan the directory by 
any of those categories. 

Member Publishing is an area of 
Source where individuals have the 



opportunity to publish magazines, 
catalogs, newsletters and to provide 
services. Member publishers ask the 
Source if they may provide a service 
which will benefit other members. 

They can publish anything from 
'Apple City' to 'Vault of Ages', and 
usually format a bulletin board-type 
of structure. 

Source also provides consumer 
information in the form of Mic- 
rosearch, a buyers' guide to mic- 
rocomputer hardware and software, 
and related equipment and services. 
It contains summaries of product lit- 
erature and specifications provided 
by manufacturers and computer pub- 
lications. 

Travel services are available 
online, such as air schedules and 
fares, a hotel guide, and the Mobil 
Travel Service guides. 

Consumer items can be purch- 
ased on-line by designating your cre- 
dit card account. 

Entertainment 

Entertainment is a section which 
no database should be without, and 
Source offers card games, adven- 
ture, board, word/number and 
education I games. 

If you get stuck in an adventure 
there's an online bulletin board in 
which you can ask for help. 

Since Source requires you to man- 
ually logoff, a Pacnet error could 
mean that when you try to logon 
again you will find yourself already 
logged in, and waiting until Source 
decides that you had, in fact, left — 
meanwhile it's charging you. 

All Source services can be acces- 
sed by keywords, such as MEM- 
BERS for the 'members directory, 
and the more familiar you are with 
these the less time you need to 
spend gazing at menus, and more 
time spent downloading useful data. 

To access Source you need a 
modem capable of operating at 300 
baud, a subscription with the N.Z. 
Post Office for Pacnet, and member- 
ship with Source. 

Sharing these costs is a good idea. 

Source charges an initial subscrip- 
tion, a monthly rental, and usage 
charges, presented in a monthly bill. 
Payment is by credit card. 



$gsm& 



Bite & Bytes - Oecsmber 1985 27 



Office Problems: Series 5-NOISy/iffiPRINTERS 



Solution 
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# 





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coustic 



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For Office Printers 



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In-built cooling system 
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• Self propping lid 

> Trolly or desk mount 
• "Customised" 

construction available 



mn 2602 

28 Bits & Bytes- December 19B5 



Guaranteed by: 

AWA New Zealand Limited 

Data Systems Division 
Auckland Wellington Chnstchurch 

P.O. Box 1363 P.O. Box 50248 P.O. Box 32054 

Phone 760-129 Phone 851-279 Phone 890-449 

For further information on the AWA Acoustic Hood write or Phone AWA Data 

Systems Division at the office nearest you. 



Long wait for saintly OS 

By Pip Forer 



Operating systems, like top civil servants, have little 
glamour but much influence. Forming the foundation of all the 
user does the operating system (known to its acquaintances, 
for it has few friends, as OS) is often invisible, normally unre- 
marked by the new user and not infrequently verbally abused 
by the afficionado. The OS is a villain: the blame for non-port- 
able software, that great curse of modern microcomputing, is 
often laid at the gate of machine specific OSs. 



The OS is a potential saint: the solu- 
tion to the same problem is now ironi- 
cally being seen as the emergence of a 
standard OS, the "we'll all be alright 
when Unix (universal MS- DOS or what- 
ever) is here" syndrome. 

OSs govern what can be done, who 
can do it. how it is to be done and the 
costs of not doing it right. 

The OS basically determines the 
power and the personality of the compu- 
ter's operations. In the 8-bit arena most 
machines come with proprietary OSs 
although some standards can be found 
which are quasi-portable across 
machines (i.e. perhaps just the disk for- 
mats may vary). 

CP/M is the most common of these, 
MSX a new innovation and the UCSD P- 
System the academics' favourite. 

However the best and most popular 8- 
bit machines outside of business run the 
huge majority of their software on their 
own, brand-specific OSs. 

Four camps 

At the 16-bit level and beyond four 
camps are most widely known. 

Three are OSs found on various sys- 
tems: the PCDOS/MSDOS cadre, the 
upmarket versions of CP/M (the most 
recent of which is CPM/68 for the 
Motorola 68000 chip) and the largely 32- 
bit UNIX and its clones. 

The fourth, the exception, is a brand- 
specific proprietary OS: that of the Apple 
Macintosh. This is a so-called WIMPs 
system (Windows, Icons and Mouse 
Programming) designed integrally to 
support a graphics user interface. 

All of the systems are more powerful 
than their S-bit counterparts. However 
not all offer the degree of software porta- 
bility between machines that some prop- 
onents suggest. 

In a paper at the COMDEX 84 confer- 
ence American writer John Little noted 
the enormous variations in (and prob- 
lems with) different Unix implementa- 
tions, and pronounced UNIX dead. 

This is surely an overstatement, but 
it's food for thought. Assorted comments 
in several computer publications fill out a 
groundswell that questions Unix as a 



universal operating system... despite 
Unix, arguably, being the best bet for OS 
standardisation. 

Best for teaching? 

Most OSs are used by, but not 
designed for, education. What is the 
best OS for a teaching environment? Is 
there a single answer and if so, what is 
it? 

Education has unusual needs. Its 
users are not grinding through word-pro- 
cessing or spreadsheeting interminably 
as many business users may do... their 
activities are far wider. 

For them the OS cannot be guaran- 
teed to be hidden behind the screens of 
an application program. Many educators 
need to work more closely with files and 
interfaced devices than any business 
executive. At the same time both they 
and their pupils have quite breathtaking 
skills at crashing software. 

The acquisition of skills to cope with 
computing is a slow business for a 
teacher provided with little time or cash 
to retrain. 

If we seek the ideal Educational 
Operating System (EOS) we have to 
add robustness and simplicity to power 
(and possible portability) as criteria for 
judgement. Here is some more food for 
thought. 

Firstly a few comments on current 
OSs which, if you work on several 
brands of micros, you may come to 
echo. 

Eight bit computers came to the mar- 
ketplace aimed at first-time users. All but 
CP/M machines tailored their OSs to two 
constraints: the memory addressable on 
8-bit systems and the ability of their 
users to cope with commands. 

Most OSs were set up so that, if you 
crashed, then whatever you were doing 
you almost always fell back to a friendly 
'start-up' position. Things were pitched 
at a fundamental level. These machines 
grew from the user upward and it could 
be that their continued development has 
moved at an easier pace than their more 
advanced relations in order to remain in 
tune with the general body of current 
users. 




16-bit action 



Most of the recent action and publicity 
has been at the 16-bit level. 

The two main systems, MS-DOS and 
CPM/86, came from two dubious sires: 
the business community programmers, 
and mainframe concepts of requisite 
power. 

They have grown from the top down 
and are complex and non- robust for the 
new user. 

I still cannot believe my early experi- 
ences under MSDOS where printer con- 
figuration procedures were so abys- 
mally arcane. Or when I tied up a 
'hacker's deiighf program under stan- 
dard BASIC on such a machine only to 
have RESET throw me back to the OS 
and lose both program and BASIC. 

It still galls me that when in BASIC 
many OS operations, such as copying, 
are no longer available except under 
other command names. 

None of these shortcomings occur on 
the best 8-bit machines I have used, 
which incidentally outperformed the 
8088-based BASICs hands down. 

I will argue long and volubly over the 
after-dinner port that the IBM-PC Jr. 
went to the great computer network in 
the sky not just because it was a poor 
machine or over emasculated to reduce 
competition with the PC senior, but 
because PC-DOS in the home market is 
like tensor algebra over breakfast: totally 
inappropriate. 

Educational computing is currently far 
closer to home than to business. 

(Continued on page 3 1) 



_^A_J 



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FOR PEOPLE 

ZASTK 



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35 Taranaki St, Wellington 

Phone (04) 859-675 

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Phone (09) 393-408 



Bits & Bytes - December 1 985 29 



Thanks for 
the memory! 



The 

Commodore 

128 

It's here . 

. . . and it's going to make a 
lot of people happy. A 
personal computer with a 
128K memory and 80-column 
capability that's still 
compatible with all the 
peripherals and over 3000 
programs designed for the 
Commodore 64. 

"The 80-column display, 2 MHZ 
microprocessor, 128K of 
memory (theoretically 
expandable to a megabyte), 

, Tk „ „„„„„„,, /^„„ i i CP/M plus, and fast double- 

h« „™ E? nLKnfh, Z } sided disk drive make the 128 a 
has gone to great lengths to ranah!p hiwinpw marhinp 

produce a new, 'State ot the Art" capa&ie Dij^iness nnaori ne 

look while preserving 2S252SSM5 h a P 

compatibility with 64 software "SSSflSF" and ApP ' e 

and hardware: a smart move computers. ^ 

since it provides the 128 with an Computers Gazette 

instant base of thousands of 

software packages." 

Personal Computing 




In fact, the new C128 is three 
computers in one. That's 
because it can run as a C64, 
a C128 and in CP/M mode. 
Or it can even be expanded 
to a full 512K memory. And 
that's about as "personalised" 
as a personal computer can 
get. 



"Commodore deserves applause 
from all quarters of the industry 
for at last establishing 
compatibility within their range, 
yet producing a really exciting 
machine . , . tt is also capable of 
running CP/M and well warrants 
the description of both home 
and small business computers," 

Your Computer 



"When you look at the C128, 
consider these factors; The 
wealth of existing software that 
is compatible with the C128 
system in the areas of business, 
education and entertainment; 
The amount of that software 
taking full advantage of the 
sound and graphics features; 
The quality and extensiveness 
of its built-in BASIC; The cost ot 
peripherals and hardware. 
Considering all it has to offer, 
the C128 is a personal computer 
that should make Apple cringe 
and IBM raise its eyebrows." 

Run Magazine 



Go to your nearest specialist Commodore dealer for 
information about the all new Commodore 128. 

Commodore Computer (NZ) Ltd, P.O. Box 33-847, Takapuna, Auckland 9 

30 Bits a Bytes - December 1985 






«&3ffc^^^?^^&#^^ 




(Continued from page 29) 

More power 

The problem in the early 1980s was 
that if you gave an OS designer more 
memory room and a free rein, most 
tended to go straight for power in their 
designs. So, traditionally, as machine 
power has increased so too has the 
complexity of the standard OS to the 
user: it got harder initially to handle but 
would do far more for the full-time, com- 
petent user. 

But what educational users want are 
easier and friendly ways to do relatively 
simple things. They need a standard 
user interface for all their software that 
offers friendly access to all their needs. 

Of desk-top systems available in New 
Zealand, as I write only the Macintosh 
system has started from the premise of 
user needs and built an OS around that 
rather than adding on a variety of friendly 
but software specific interfaces. 

It is doubtless the first of many prop- 
rietary 1 6/32-bit systems which will fol- 
low the same design philosphy: make it 
easy on the user while compromising 
some elements of power for more ease 
of use (and minimise the impact of this 
by using a powerful processor). 

Look at the two most recent new-wave 
small systems: the 68000-based sys- 
tems from Atari and Commodore. 

The 'Jackintosh' employs the GEM 
interface on a proprietary OS while the 
Amiga uses a UK-authored OS called 
TRIPOS. No standardisation here (nor 
from WICAT who design systems solely 
for education and training) but I guaran- 
tee that the best educational software 
will emerge on genuinely configured 
WIMPs systems. 

Too complicated 

There is little doubt that Educational 
Operating Systems need this sort of 
design philosophy. 

Many users, on both sides of the 
desktop, are learning the game for the 
first time and cannot conceive how to 
make full use of sophisticated com- 
mands if offered them. For these a good 
8-bit system will do fine. 

Even the more experienced users 
may be willing to forego a small loss in 
power if they no longer need to 



remember that the generalised syntax 

for copying a file is: 

COPY filespec[ +filespec][/A:/B][files- 

pec][A/:B/] 

(and if I got that wrong it just proves my 

point). 

In the same article on UNIX men- 
tioned earlier, John Little predicted that 
MS-DOS was headi ng towards Unix-like 
qualities. This seems very much to be 
what is happening. If so, then for the cur- 
rent educational scene, is it heading up a 
dead end? 

Administratively it may seem that the 
MSDOS/BIOS combination offers an 
OS Lingua Franca and may also offer 
business studies access to complex 
business software and let the headmas- 
ter keep his school records. 

If these items are (respectively) illus- 
ory, marginal and irrelevant to the main 
applications of educational computing, 
which they are, where are we left? 



Still waiting 



The hard truth is that education needs 
its own operating system, albeit with 
handles to link in to other environments. 
Without doubt it still awaits a fully 
appropriate solution. 

I can hear the MS-DOS brigade wail- 
ing that the solution is to hand in GEM (or 
Windows, or the poorly rated Top 
Down). We just modify MSDOS into a 
WIMPs system with these add-ons 
which give MS-DOS machines an icon- 
based (or at least window-based) front 
end. 

Show that to the users and let the 
programmers wallow in MS-DOS. 

At present GEM is the frontmnner in 
this field. However GEM is not the first 
product to attempt this (remember Visi- 
on). 

Because of constraints GEM under 
MS-DOS is not as pretty as it seems at 
first. It is slow on an 8088 and ugly with- 
out a better monitor than most machines 
possess (for some primaeval brands 
you may need to get a graphics adaptor 
too, to make it function), 

it is not currently portable across 
machines (a deliberate design baffle 
that Digital Research are reworking). 

More to the point, it is a WIMPs front 
end bolted on to a (rival) OS of some 
age, which will never be as good as a 
ground-up design with tailored software. 

WIMPs systems need a ground-up 
approach to be optimal and (a cautio- 
nary note when assessing prices of col- 
our WIMPs machines) a very good 
monitor. 



Compatibles 



bits and the appropriate 16/32 bit 
WIMPs lies the current 16-bit land of 
'compatible' systems where develop- 
ments have been largely driven by pur- 
chasing decisions of small and large 
businesses. 

Before education embraces the path 
followed by many businessmen and 
rushes to MS-DOS we might ask one 
question: Are the advantages of market 
share and compatibility claimed by MS- 
DOS proponents the key to success, or 
a mirage disguising an OS that is typical 
of the awkward adolescence of personal 
computing? 



The education market is a huge mar- 
ket with special needs. 
Between the robust and practical 8- 



Calling for 



Programmes 
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As well as the fame, or notoriety, 
you will be paid for programmes pub- 
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Bits & Bytes - December 1985 31 




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32 Bits & Bytes - December 19B5 



Tool box 



The search begins 

By Gordon Findlay 

The remaining stages of our name and address program 
are the most machine specific, and some alternatives will be 
given. Not all are tested — I haven't got access to all the 
machines — so there will be lots of room for your own creativ- 
ity and for you to practise debugging! 



«»/ 



The search option is the most difficult 
module of all in our little data handler. 
The sort of facilities which are available 
in larger programs would allow searches 
like: 

— find all the members in the list whose 
name starts with "P", 

— find all the members whose names do 
not start with "P" or "W". 

— find all the members who live in Main 
Street 

— find the member who lives in Main 
Street and whose name starts "Par" 

— find all the members who live in Main 
Street, or whose names start wi th " Par" . 

Not all of these searches would make 
sense in the context of a list of names, 
addresses and telephone numbers; but 
they are typical of searches involving 
one or more fields, in combinations. 
These are sometimes called multiple 
filed, or Boolean, searches. 

We should be a little less ambitious. 
We will settle for a listing of all the 
records in which one of the fields (name, 
address or telephone) contains, in whole 
or part, a given "search string". Thus if 
the search string was "RE", and we 
searched names, "REID", "WETERE" 
and "KAREN" would be reported. To 
narrow the search it is only necessary to 
make the search string more specific. 

A "wildcard" facility as is found in 
many opearying systems would also be 
easy to incorporate — let me know if you 
do! 

The basic tool at our disposal here is 
the INSTR function, which isn't in all 
Basics, but is easy enough to duplicate 
using MIDS$ if not. INSTR(A$,B$) gives 
the position of B$ in A$ — 
INSTR("BANANA", "ANA") is 2, as 
"ANA" appears starting at the second 
position in "BANANA". 

INSTR{"BANANA", "SKIN") is 0. as 
"SKIN" doesn't appear anywhere in 
"BANANA". This is the basic (pardon 
the pun) weapon in our armoury. If the 
result of the INSTR function is the 
record we are searching is not required; 
if the result is non-zero we have a match. 

Those who don't have INSTR in their 
repertoire can use MID$ 

The rest of the "save" routine is rela- 
tively straightforward. We first obtain a 
search string, and the field to search 
(name, address or telephone number). 



We then pass through the whole array, 
testing each in turn. If we find a match, 
that record (all fields) is displayed, using 
a subroutine we already have. Here's 
what it looks like: 
7000 IF N=0 THEN PRINT "Nothing to 

search! Press return": INPUT 

X$: RETURN 
7005 CLS 

7010 PRINT'Search string:"; 
7020 GOSOB 30 
7030 SE$ = X$ 

7040 PR I NT" Search which field:" 
7050 PRINT" 1— name" 
7060PRINT"2 — adress" 
7070 PRINT"3 — phone number" 
7075 PRINT 
7080CH3:GOSUB10 
7085 REM CS will be the field number 

to search 
7090 FOR I = 1 toN 
7100 ON CS GOTO 7120,7130,7140 
7120 FOUND 

INSTR(N$(l),SE$):GOTO 71 50 
7130 FOUND 

INSTR(A$(l),SE$):GOTO7150 
7140 FOUND = INSTR(PH${I),SE$) 
7150 IF FOUND = O GOTO 71 70 
7160GOSUB40 
7165 PRINTPRINT "Press return to 

continue";:INPUTX$ 
7170 NEXT I 
7180 RETURN 

In line 7000 we check that there actu- 
ally is data to search, just as we did in 
line 8000 before trying to list anything. 
The search string is obtained, and the 
number of the field also, using the sub- 
routine previously introduced. 

This is used in an ON-GOTO state- 
ment to choose the right version of the 
FOUND = statement. If the result is zero 
we skip the display of the record, other- 
wise we display it, and pause before 
moving on (Iine7160). 

Nothing here about the problem of 
upper and lower case. There are two 
ways to avoid matches failing because 
the search string and the record are in 
different cases — "Findlay" isn't the 
same as "FINDLAY" in the comparison 
of strings. 

One way is to avoid input in lower case 
altogether. Another is to convert the 
search string, and the data being 
searched, to the same case, using 
techniques such as those in line 23. 

The remaining modules are the har- 
dest to write about — saving and loading 
to disk or tape. This is very machine 




specific, and varies even between diffe- 
rent dialects of Microsoft Basic. 

Loading comes first in programming, 
as it determines the way in which data is 
saved. 

There are two alternatives to cope 
with the fact that the number of records 
to save, N, varies from time to time. One 
way is to let the computer (the operating 
system actually) tell us when there is 
nothing else to load. The other way is to 
save, and hence load, the number of 
record ourselves. 

The first alternative looks something 
like this, using the EOF (End of File) 
function of MBASIC: 
2000 OPEN "l".1,"DATAFILE/ASC:1" 
2010 N = 

2020 IF EOF(1) THEN CLOSE ^RE- 
TURN 
2030 N = N + 1 
2040 INPUT #1,N$(N) 
2050 INPUT #1,AS(N) 
2060 INPUT #1,PH${N) 
2070 GOTO 2020 

Line 2000 opens the data file; the 
number of records starts at 0, and then 
we I nput data from the data file unti I EOF 
is true, updating N as we go. 

The second alternative would look like 
this: 

2000 INPUT #-1,N 
2010 FOR M TON 
2020 INPUT #-1,N$(l) 
2030 INPUT #-1,A${l) 
2040 INPUT #-1,PH$(l) 
2050 NEXT I 
2060 RETURN 

In this variety of Basic the INPUT #-1 
statement reads information from tape 
rather than keyboard, but otherwise 
behaves exactly as INPUT. 

In Applesoft INPUT does the job from 
disk as well, but first we must open the 
disk file for reading. The string D$ is a 
special signal to Apple DOS that the 

tCQMinv&J on page 35) 
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34 Bils & Byles - December 1 985 



' 



Tool box 



(Continued from page 33) 

PRINT statement is actually a disk com- 
mand: 

2000 D$ CHR$(4) 

2010 PRINT D$;"OPEN DATAFILE" 
2020 PRINT D$;"READ DATAFILE" 
2030 INPUT N 
2040 FOR I = 1 TO N 
2050 INPUT N$(l) 
2060 INPUT A$m 
2070 INPUT PH$(I) 
2080 NEXT 

2090 PRINT D$;"CLOSE DATAFILE" 
2100 RETURN 

Line 2090 is important! Unless the file 
is closed, all future input statements will 
look to the disk rather than the keyboard, 
with most unpleasing results. 

For the Commodore 64, the load 
routine will be something like this — 
2000 OPEN 

8,8,8"0:DATAFILE,SEQ,READ" 
2010 INPUT #8,N 
2020 FOR I = 1 TO N 
2030 INPUT #8,N$(I) 
2040 INPUT #8,A$(I) 
2050 INPUT #8,PH${I) 
2060 NEXT I 
2070 CLOSE 8 
2080 RETURN 

In the best C64 circles a check would 
be made to the error channel after open- 
ing the file, before reading from it each 
time: use a subroutine call GOSUB 
1 1 000, and open the error channel first: 

2000 OPEN 1,8,15 

2001 OPEN 
8,8 T 8"0:DATAFILE,SEQ,READ" 

1 1000 INPUT #1 ,ER,ER$,ET,ES 
11010 IF ER < 20 then return 
1 1020 PRINT "DISK ERROR" 
11 030 STOP 

Of course, more sophisticated error 
messages are there for the asking! For 
tape use, open the appropriate channel 
in the usual way. 

Spectrum users have the LOAD 
filename DATA statement and the cor- 
responding SAVE statement; the rest of 
you have to look to the manuals I 

The save routines for the various 
machines are all related very closely to 
the load routines given, and I won't 
bother listing them all here. 

And that is about it. A very minimal 
program, but with potential for expan- 
sion and adaptation. Hopefully you will 
have learnt about a modular approach to 
the problem of programming as well. A 
complete listing (using MBASIC for the 
machine-dependent bits) is at the end of 
the article. 

I'd be glad to see what flesh can be put 
on these bones. 

1 hope to do a round-up of some of 
these problems later if enough people 
send their comments and/or questions. 

1 GOTO 1O0O 

10 PRINT"Vour choice! 1 - " i CH; '■ «| 

12 INPUT CS 

It IF CS < I OR C3 > CH THEN GOTD 10 

16. RETURN 

20 INPUT it 

22 X» - LEFTttXt, 1) 

23 IF It >= "a" THEN X»=Ch'R*<ASC(X*)-32) 

24 IF Xt <> ■'¥'■ AND It <> "N" THEN SOTO 20 



26 RETURN 

30 Xt""" i REM see tent 

32 INPUT Xt 

34 RETURN 

40 PRINT "Nam*: "| Ntri> 

42 PRINT "Address: "|#,t<I> 

44 PRINT "Phonal "j PHt(I) 

46 RETURN 

IO00 CLEAR 1OO0 I REM if tiecc. 

1020 MAX = 200, 

1030 NO - O 

1040 Din N«<MAX), At(MAI), PH»(MA)() 

1030 CLS : REM clear screen 



li3F.il 


PRINT "Main menu: options" 


1070 


PRINT 


1030 


PRINT "1. Clear the database" 


1090 


PRINT "2, Load data from tape" 


1100 


PRINT H 3. Save data to tape" 


1110 


PRINT "4. Type new data" 


1120 


PRINT "5. Delete data" 


1130 


PRINT "6. Chang* data" 


1140 


PRINT "7. Q#arctl for data" 


1130 


PRINT "B. List data" 


11 to 


PRINT "9. E»it this program" 


1170 


PRINT 


HBO 


CH - 3 : QOSUB 10 


1190 


ON CS SOSUB 10000, 2000, 30O0, 




4000, 500O, 6000, 7000, 3000, 9000 


ISOO 


GOTO 1050 


2000 


OPEN "I", l,"OATAFILE/ASCi 1" 


2010 


N = 


2020 


IF EOF (11 THEN CLOSE 1 i RETURN 


2030 


N = N ♦ I 


2040 


INPUT 11,11(111) 


2050 


INPUT ll,AliNi 


2060 


INPUT (tl,PHt(N) 


2070 


SOTO 2020 


3000 


OPEN "u",2, "DATAFlLe/ASC:l" 


3010 


FOR 1-1 TO N 


3020 


PRINT #2,N»(I) 


303O 


PRINT #2,A*(I) 


3040 


PRINT #2,PHI<1> 


3050 


NEXT 


3053 


CLOSE 2 


3060 


RETURN 


40O0 


CLS: REM clear screen. 


4010 


PRINT "There are *j N; " records in 




the file" 


4020 


PRINT"Enter new records: give a 




blank name to ttop entering." 


4030 


PRINTiPRINT ;PEM give a bit of room 


4040 


PRINT'Name: "fl GOSUB 30 


4050 


IF Xt-"" THEN RETURN 


4060 


N=N+l 



4070 Nt<N> = Xt 

40BO PPINT"Addr*SB! "-, : QOSUB 30 

4090 At<Nl ■ I* 

41O0 PPINT"Phone: "\ i ijOSUB 30 

4103 PHt(N) ■ Xt 

4110 PR I NT: PR INT 

4120 PPINT'Is this entry correct fV/Nl"[ 

4130 30SUB 20 

4140 IF Xt ■ "N" THEN N = N - t 

4150 GOTO 4000 

3000 CL3 

3010 PPTNT"Del*fc* a record!" 

5020 PRINT: PR I NT 

2030 INPUT "Which record should b* deleted 

(number 1 "; I 
3032 IF I < OP I 5 N THEN 

PRINT"There is no such r *i:or d" iRETURN 
5040 GGSU0 40 : REM display the ifeh record 
5050 PRINT; PRINT "Delet* THIS record rv/tli" 
3060 QOSUB 20 

50711 IF xts"N" THEN RETURN 
5073 IF I - N THEN SOTO 5130 
5080 FOP J ~ I : ♦ 1 TO N 
3030 NtiJ-n = Ntljl 
3*00 AI'J-l I " Atf Jl 
5110 PH»i J-l > = PHtlJJ 
3120 NEIT 
5130 N - N - 1 
5140 RETURN 
GOOD CLS 
60113 PRINT "Chang* which retold"; ; INPUT I 



6020 IF I • O OP I > N THEN 

PRINT "no such record ■ ";RET URN 
6030 GOSUB 40 
6040 PRINT: PRINT 
6050 PRINT "New name: "; 
6060 QOSUB 30 

6070 IF It <i "" THEN Nt(I> • It 
EOBO PRINT "New Address: " ; 
6090 60 SUB 30 

6100 ir n "" then Atili - xt 

6110 PRINT "New phone: "; 

£120 GOSUB 30 

6130 IF It • .- ■"' THEN PHtft- = It 

6140 CLS 

6150 PRINT "New record "; I 

6160 PPINTiPPINT 

6170 GDSPB 40 

6 ISO PR INT: PR I NT 

6190 PRINT"Is this correct now (Y/N)"; 

£200 GOSUB 20 

6210 IF Xt - "N" THEN GOTO 6050 

6220 RETURN 

7000 IF N=0 THEN PRINT "Nothing to search! 

Press return": INPUT X*:RETURN 
7005 CLS 

7010 PRINT"5earch string:") 
7020 QOSUB 30 
7030 SE« - X* 

7040 PRINT"Search which field:" 
7OS0 PRINT" 1 - nam*" 
7060 PRINT"2 - adr*»s" 
7070 PRINT"3 - phone number" 
707S PRINT 

7OB0 CH = 3: QOSUB 10 
70B5 REM CS will b* the field number 

to search 
7090 FOR | ■ 1 TON 
7100 DN CS GOTO 7120,7130,7140 
7120 FOUND = INSTR(Ntd) , SE*)lGOTO 7150 
7130 FOUND = INSTRIAt(I) ,SE*l:GDTO 7 ISO 
7140 FOUND - INSTR{PHt< I ),SE«S 

7 ISO IF FOUND - SOTO 7170 
7160 SOSUB 40 

7165 FRINT:PRINT "Press return to 

continue"; : INPUT X* 
7170 NEXT J 
7180 RETURN 
8000 CLS 
8005 IF N=0 THEN PRINT "No data to list' 

Press return" [INPUT xt: RETURN 
8010 PRINT "Start list at which record 

■default »,'■>" 
BO20 30 SUB 30 
BO30 ST - UAL'XtJ 
8040 IF ST C 1 THEN ST - 1 
B045 IF ST > « THEN ST - 1 
8050 PRINT 
8060 PRINT "Finish listing at which record 

(default « last)"; 
BO 70 GDSUB 30 
BOBO FI . VAL(Xt) 
B090 IF FI I- N THEN FI = N 
B10O IF FI - O THEN FI = N 
3110 FOR I - ST TO Ft 
B120 CLS 

B125 PRINT "Record number: "I I 
B126 PRINT 
9130 QOSUB 40 
8140 PR INT: PR I NT 

B150 PRlNT"pr*ss return to continue "; 

H 160 INPUT Xt 

B170 NEXT I 

3180 RETURN 

9000 PRINT "Do you really want to exit"; 

9010 GOSUB 20 

3020 IF Xt = "N" THEN RETURN 

9030 CLS 

9040 END 

10000 PRINT "Do you really want to clear 

everything" ; 
10010 GOSUB 20 

10020 IF X* = "Y" THEN NO ■ 
10030 RETURN 



WOT? NO INSTR? 

The INSTR function isn't in all Basics. 
Those who don't have it can use this 
subroutine, which returns the position 
at which SE$ begins in Pf , as the 
result II. 

The returned value II will be zero if 
SE$ cannot be found in P$. 

Use the subroutine by assigning 
P$ and SE$, GOSUB 1 00, and look at 
the value of II. 
100SL=LEN(SE$) 



110PL=LEN(P$) 

12011 = 

130 FORJ=1 to PL— SL 

140 IFMID$(P$,J,SL) = SE$THEI 

II = J 
150 NEXT 
160 RETURN 

The subroutine actually finds th 
LAST occurence of SE$ in P$ (if the 
is more than one) ratherthan the first, 
as INSTR does. This doesn't matt 
in our application: ail we need to kno' 
Is whether the search string occu 
not exactly where, 



Bils & Bytes - December 1985 35 



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36 Bits & Bytes - December 1985 



Commodore 



Musical 'interrupts' 

By Joe Colquitt 



As a departure from graphics, this 
month we'll take a look at sound; espe- 
cially with the use of machine code and 
interrupts. I will be returning to graphics 
later. 

For the purpose of this article, I'll 
assume that readers have a resonable 
knowledge of using the sound registers 
or at least know what they are. An under- 
standing of machine code is not 
required, but is helpful if you want to 
make any modifications. 

A basic failing of a lot of sound 
routines for the beginner, is that they 
nearly always use BASIC and cannot be 
used with other programs because they 
slow them down to a crawl. The prog- 
ramming in this article uses an Interrupt. 

Here an explanation of Interrupts is 
needed. 

Every 1/60th of a second, the compu- 
ter stops what it is doing and enters a 
ROM routine that does the 'housework'. 

This includes such things as updating 
the cursor flash, incrementing timers, 
scanning the keyboard, refreshing the 
screen etc. So even if you are sitting at 
the keyboard doing nothing, the compu- 
ter is still very busy. 

You can use this system to great 
advantage. 

If you enter ?PEEK(788)+256* 
PEEK(788), you will find the address 
that the operating system jumps to every 
1/60th sec. This is known as a Vector. 
Normally it is 59953 (SEA31 in hex). 

The lurk is to change that vector so 
that the computer performs YOUR 
routine first, then does its own house- 
keeping. 

In the particular application I'm pre- 



senting, this means that all note timing 
loops are performed as part of the com- 
puter's housekeeping, and therefore do 
not affect the speed of any BASIC prog- 
ram. Even more, they do not affect 
machine code programs to .any notice- 
able extent. 

Anyway, I can leave the detailed exp- 
lanations for later. 

To give you something to play around 
with till next month, here is the program. 
When you run it, try some of the SYS 
numbers to get the hang of changing the 
sound. 

Because the note timers are 
incremented every 1/60th sec, a value of 
60 for duration will make a note last 1 
sec. 



Type the program in and save it. After 
you've checked the listing, run it. The 
machine-code is read into 49152 to 
49473. To save this as a file, enter (in 
direct mode): 

POKE43,0;POKE44,192:POKE45,66: 
POKE46, 1 93:POKE52, 1 94:POKE56, 
194,'CLR 
SAVE"filename1 ",Device,1 

To reload it, use this line at the begin- 
ning of your user program: 
IFPEEK(49152)<>120THEN- 

LOAD ,, filename1",DEVICE,1 

This ensures that once the MC is 
installed, it isn't reloaded every time you 
re-run the user program. 

Your note/register values will be in the 
area 36832-38656, which needs protec- 
tion from string variables, Do this by 




POKE52,143:POKE56.143 in your user 
program. To save this area, use: 
POKE43,224:POKE44,143:POKE45,0: 
POKE46,151:CLR 
SAVE"FILENAME2 , ',DEVICE,1 

To load it, find PEEK(36864) after 
you've saved the file, then use 
1 IFPEEK(36864)ovalueTHEN- 

LOAD"filename2",DEVICE,1 
in your user program. 

Alternatively: 
0C=C+1 

1 IFC=1THENLOAD"filename1", DE- 
VICES 

2 IFC=2THENLOAD"filename2",DE- 
VICE.1 

10 REST OF PROGRAM... 

After running the program for the first 
time, you could change lineO to GOTO 
1 0, to avoid re-loading the files. 

To change voice characteristics whilst 
the tune is playing, you could have the 
module like the one below, which would 
have been previously executed in the 
main body of the program: 
500 FOR 

l=0TO24:READD:POKE36800+l, 
D:NEXT 



510DATA0,0,0.2,0.85,21 
515 DATAO.0,0,1 0,0,23,23 
520 DATAO,0,0,4,0,7,63 
525 DATAO.7,248,47 

The changes to all registers would be 
immediately implemented in your pog- 
ram by. 

tConlinuea on page 33 



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38 Bits & Bytes - December 1985 



BBC 



Fastest second-processor in town? 



By Pip Forer 



Several months ago I vowed not to 
mention a certain add-on from Acorn 
until I had one in my sights. 

Well, the 3201 6 chip is now provision- 
ally released as a second processor tor 
the BBC and so this month we start a 
two-part review of what is an intriguing 
and strategically important product from 
Acorn, 

I sit here now with a megabyte of 
memory and power approaching a 
good-sized minicomputer plugged into 
my faithful Beeb. 

The National Semiconductor 32016 
chip (which comes as a second proces- 
sor (2P) with a 32081 floating point unit) 
has a direct addressing range of 16 
megabytes — although at present the 
physical limit on a second processor is 1 
megabyte, the standard 256K. 

It is said to provide comparable 
number-crunching capabilities to a 
smaller Digital Equipment mini with an 
appreciable raw-processing edge over 
the popular 68010 version of the 
Motorola 68000 chip (used by the 
Macintosh, Amiga, Stride, Wicat, Atari 
530). 

When beefed up to 1 megabyte of 
RAM the 2P user has approximately 1 95 
times the space for a BASIC program 
than on a model B in mode 1 . 

All in all the hardware specifications 
are impressive and given the likely ask- 
ing price in New Zealand the system 
offers one of the cheapest ways into 
working with this chip. 

But does all this hype with a hardware 
emphasis actually add up to anything 
useful? 

Lesser-known chip 

The chip itself is important to Acorn. 
As I write Acorn continues to sidestep 
involvement with the two currently popu- 
lar chips (808S family and 68000), 
although both Intel and 68000 co-pro- 
cessors are available for the BBC. 

Acorn utilised the more advanced 
Intel 80286 in one model of its aborted 
business computer (ABC) and this may 
yet re-emerge in a new guise. 

However at an early date Acorn 
backed the lesser-known 32016 pro- 
totype. It used this in another version of 
the business computer and is building its 
Cambridge Workstation for universities 
around it. 

Unless it reverses this commitment 
(or moves some of its ideas on to its new 
RISC chip) we might anticipate that 
future products under the influence of 
Olivetti and AT&T will also seek to 
capitalise on this work with a WIMPs 



environment machine (the ABC used a 
GEM interface). 

It may well be that the 3201 6 forms the 
basis for at least four products: 

1 ) A BBC second processor 

2) A university workstation [similar to 1) 
but bundled] 

3) An enhanced Econet fileserver 

4) A new WIMPs machine 

The distinction between 1-3 and 4 is 
that the first three will use the current 
BBC system as input-output system. 
The fourth may see a significant 
augmentation of the old core operating 
system, especially the graphics. 

No pretence 

At present we are looking just at 1), 
The bundled package for this is impres- 
sive in scope. 

Apart from the standard processor 
box the system has four volumes of 
documentation and five languages plus 
a 32016 assembler. 

The languages offer a wide range of 
development potential : Pascal, Fortran, 
C, Lisp and BBC BASIC (compilers for 
the first 3 and interpreters for the last 
two). 

In some ways it is a machine for 
advanced programmers in a traditional 
environment and does not currently 
make any pretence to support a WIMPs 
interface. 

What it does offer are several profes- 
sional development systems and a lot of 
raw power. For the ambitious BBC 
hacker with an eye to the future it also 
has appeal for the room it gives. 

I intend to deal with it in its simplest 
form first : as an extension of the BBC for 
someone who is not seeking to change 
their working habits/languages dramati- 
cally. 

From this viewpoint it is unbelievably 
simple to install and gets full marks for 
realising the philosophy of ongoing com- 
patibility with earlier material. I just 
unplugged my 6502 2P and plugged in 
the 3201 6. 

On power up the prompt appeared 
Pandora Operating System, 1024 
kbytes of RAM'. Every standard * com- 
mand to the normal DFS (or NFS or 
tape) was then immediately available. 

Pandora is a ROM in the 2P which 
interfaces the 32016 to the normal sys- 
tem in the BBC and it does a pretty 
seamless job. All the languages can be 
run on DFS or on Econet using the BBC 
as a workstation without any real depar- 
ture from the usual ways of using the fil- 
ingsystems. 

To get BBC BASIC up requires load- 




ing a file from disk ("BAS32). You can 
then LOAD normal Basic files from any 
normal filing system and just run them. 

Modified 



Basic 4, as it is known, is a very neat 
translation with several enhancements 
and only a few avoidable differences. 
For a start it includes a full editor, 
enhanced error reporting and a nice 
facility called LIST IF. 

This last option allows you to list only 
those lines including a particular sequ- 
ence of characters and is very powerful. 

The VDU command has been mod- 
ified to allow dropping of the trailing 
zeros, the ON statement can now be 
used for PROCs (very useful) and anew 
command, OSCLI, allows easier access 
to the command line interpreter. 

Indirection operators (PEEKs, POKEs 
and the like) can now refer to locations in 
any part of the RAM . CALLs to traditional 
6502 operating system locations are 
intercepted by the 32016 and actioned 
correctly by Pandora. 

The two losses in Basic 4 are the 
removal of an inbuilt assembler and the 
inability to use array elements as formal 
parameters in procedure definitions. 

Also some old limitations persist; you 
do not get better error trapping within 
procedures or the ability to pass arrays 
across. 

However, translating a BBC program 
onto the 3201 6 is a delight. Just LOAD it, 
modify any *LOADs or indirections that 
used to use low address areas of RAM 
such as the character definition buffer, 
and RUN. 

Basic software is clearly portable 
across the processor divide. When you 
look at the experience of other machines 
this really is quite an achievement, and 
made worthwhile by the intrinsic quality 
of the Basic. 



Unsegmented 



A nice aspect is that, unlike many MS- 
DOS Basics, the 32016 Basic operates 
in an unsegmented memory space so 
programs can be any length within RAM 
without any overheads to the user. 

It also (not expectedly) is faster, 
although not as much as one might first 

(Continued on page 41 
Bits & Byies - December 1985 39 




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40 Bits & Bytes - December 1 985 



BBC 



(Continued irom page 39) 

think. 

Of course anything you do is still con- 
strained by the 10 speed of your original 
disks and screen handling. 

I ran three tests to compare the BBC/ 
32016 combination with a lone BBC. On 
a numeric task (10000 square roots) the 
32016 was four times faster. Another 
task set up a random list of 100 pairs of 
characters and sorted them alphabeti- 
cally. On the random generation the 
3201 6 was 3 times faster but on the sort 
was still taking 60% of the stand-alone 
time. 

(The figures compared to a 6502 2P 
suggest the 32016 is two and a half 
times faster on the square roots but only 
marginally faster (possibly even slower) 
on the sorts). 

Finally we ran a contouring routine 
that involves calculations with ongoing 
graphics display. The 6501 2P runs this 
about twice as fast as a single BBC, the 
3201 6 a little faster again. 



Useful speed 



Remembering that the BBC Basic on 
a B alone outperforms most 16-bit 
Basics and that this is still an interpreted 
product, this is a useful speed enhance- 
ment. 

(The square root program took 80% 
longer under MS-Basic on a PC and fif- 
teen times longer under Microsoft Basic 
on a Macintosh, the sort 3V2 times 
longer on the PC and 2V2 times longer 
on the Mac). 

However it may also have some room 
for later improvement, especially in non- 
numeric tasks. 

What IhB comments above suggest is 
that Acorn has produced a computation- 
ally enhanced and almost seamlessly 
portable upgrade. 

For an industry where 'compatibility' 
has become a hollow term this is an 
impressive and significant achievement. 

Such enhancement confers almost 
boundless room and a degree of speed 
enhancement. 

Given the current pricing however, the 
32016 is likely to be initially used more 
with professional users wanting other 
languages. 

In many ways comments on Basic 
speed are irrelevant since the real plus 
of the 32016 is the room it gives to com- 
pile and run large, demanding prog- 
rams. The environment for this is a 
further level of the operating system cal- 
led PANOS. 

We will cover PANOS and the powers 
of its languages in the next issue where 
contacts for further information on net- 
work-utilising software and significant 
enhancements to the AMX mouse inter- 
face will also be covered. 



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©orrapojfeD 3 TtfMm ©m 




ANSWERS TO BOTH SETS OF 
QUESTIONS BEFORE SENDING 
IN YOUR ENTRY— DON'T SEND 
THEM IN SEPARA TELY! 



8 



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Part 11 

16. How many nanoseconds in a microsecond? 

17. Name a programming language named after a 
man, and one named after a woman. 

18. What, in Microsoft BASIC, is the result of the 
expression 

RIG HT$(LEFT$(" Bits and Bytes", LEN<M I D$(" Li- 
mited"^))), 1) 
(We know it looks strange!) 

19. Name one of the registers the 280 has which its 
predecessor, the 8080, doesn't. 

20. There was a tin man in the "Wizard of Oz" stories. 
In what computing connection did a later Tinman' 
appear? 

21 . Which computer introduced the notion of "player- 
missile" graphics to the world? 

22. One portable (reviewed in Bits & Bytes some time 
ago) had 384K of ROM! What was the name of the 
computer, and what major integrated software pac- 
kage was in some of that ROM? 

23. ACIA, PIO and VIA are not three secret service 
organisations. What are they in full? 

24. Which range of printers has been astronomically 
successful? 

25. There are computer magazines other than Bits and 
Bytes (none so good of cou rse I) . What was the orig- 
inal full title and subtitle of Dr. Dobbs Journal? 

26. Reader remember if you can, 
Aussi Dick, the electronics man, 

He sold a machine which was really dandy, 
Worked just like the One from Tandy. 
It's the subject of this "sonnet" 
What's the name that Dick put on it? 

27. How much did the very first issue of Bits and Bytes 
cost? 

28. Which of the many companies in the IBM empire 
builds the IBM JX computer? 

29. MSX computers use which microprocessor as 
CPU? 

30. O.K., an easy one to finish with. Name three com- 
puters which have been mentioned in Bits & Bytes 
sometime which are named after fruit. 



RULES 



Answers must be written on plain 
paper, and clearly numbered to cor- 
respond with the questions. 
All entries must have the NAME and 
FULL ADDRESS and TELEPHONE 
NUMBER of the entrant. Entries 
without these will be disqualified. 
Correct answers to the questions 
have been agreed on by a panel of 
experts. If more than one fully correct 
or equally correct entry is received 
they will all be mixed, and the winner 
drawn at random from them. 
The judges' decision is final and no 
correspondence will be entered into. 
All entries become the property of 
Bits & Bytes Ltd and will not be 
returned. 

Employees of Bits & Bytes and their 
immediate families are not eligible to 
enter. Employees and their 
immediate families from Commo- 
dore (NZ) Ltd and Genesis Systems 
Ltd are not eligible to enter. 
The winner will be contacted before 
February 1 1986 and details of the 
winner/s and correct answers pub- 
lished in the January/February issue 
of Bits & Bytes. 

All entries must be received on or 
before December 24th 1985 



Bits & Bytes -December 1985 43 



[ardware review 



Hewlett Packard's Portable Pius: 

An up-market package 

By Peter Biggs 



Portable computing has been a diffident market for compu- 
ter companies and consumers alike. First of all there was 
Osborne with his 3 inch CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) screen — 
and semi-portable (now called 'luggable'!) computing had 
successfully arrived. 



)^V 




The primary constraint for 'portables' is 
of course weight, which is primarily 
related to power consumption and 
screen type. Up until two years ago, the 
CRT screen ruled supreme on 'porta- 
bles' — but it needs a lot of power and 
takes up a lot of space. 

Then 15 line LCD (Liquid Crystal Dis- 
play) screens began to make an appear- 
ance. Here at last was a light, flat and 
low power- consumption screen. 

Now, within the last 18 months, 25 
line, 80 column LCD displays have 
begun arriving — the DG (Data General) 
One and Apple lie led the way, with the 
DG One incorporating two built-in disk 
drives (more than even the desktop 
Macintosh or Amiga can manage!) 

These are truly portable 'lap-top' com- 
puters. Others followed soon — Morrow 
with the Pivot II, Hewlett Packard with 
their Portable Plus to mention just two. 
These either had internal or external 
drives and printers. 

The problems with current LCD 
screens is that they are slow to 'refresh" 
themselves and unfortunately, tend to 
be somewhat unreadable. The Pivot II 
even has a 'back lit' screen to aid visibil- 
ity. 

Recently gas plasma screen displays 
began appearing on portables such as 
the Panasonic Exec. Partner, the Grid 
compass Portable and the Ericsson 
Portable. The screen is a red colour and 
has a much faster refresh time than the 
LCD screens... more readable (and 
more expensive). 

The next breakthrough is likely to 
come with an electroluminescent screen 
offering improved visibility. 

Business look 

The HP Portable Plus that I reviewed 
had arrived, along with a portable 3Va- 
inch disk drive and a portable Thinkjet 
Printer, in a convenient carry-case, look- 
ing a "nifty" set of tools indeed. 

This machine had been released in 
New Zealand on September 1 , the Press 
Release and accompanying manual 
revealing the following: 
1. This is an enhanced version of HP's 
original portable. It runs PC applica- 
tions and communicates with 

44 Bits & Bytes - December 1 385 



desktop computers such as the HP 
touchscreen and IBM PC and close 
compatibles. 

2. Its flip-up LCD screen is 80 col and 
25 line with 200 x 480 bit mapped 
graphics. 

3. The basic model comes with 128 K 
RAM with MS-DOS 2.11 and PAM 
(Personal Applications Manager 
program), both held in a 192 K 
ROM. Both ROM and RAM is 
CMOS for low power consumption. 
Tax-paid this will cost you $5290. 

4. It has two new features — a RAM 
disk (they call it E- disk) and ROM 
software capability. The RAM disk is 
fully configurable and usually 
occupies Drive A and B. Drive C is 
the external disk drive. Up to 8 exter- 
nal HP drives can be added. 

5. Keyboard is a 72 key keyboard, 8 
function keys, an equivalent 'ALT' 
key to bring up a numeric keypad 
and a contrast control for the 
screen. Anyone familiar with the 
IBM PC keyboard would have no dif- 
ficulty recognising the keys 
although one or two are special to 
this computer. The keyboard has a 
very pleasant tactile feel. 

6 . Anexternalmonitorcanbeattached 
using an special HP connector. A 
'Freeze frame' capability exists 
which will freeze the display on the 
external screen while the LCD 
screen continues to operate. This 
can be useful to compare spread- 
sheets or data. 

7. The internal battery will allow 20 hrs 
continuous use and the computer 
will run while recharging. Two sys- 
tems give ample warning when the 
battery is low on charge. The com- 
puter will even switch itself off and 
hibernate for a month before all 
RAM memory and the clock is lost. 
Overnight charging for 10 hrs pow- 
ers it up to 100% and, according to 
the Manual, this takes 18 hrs when 
the computer is being used. 

8. The CPU is a CMOS 80C86 running 
at 5.3 MHz and the computer is 
claimed to be BIOS compatible with 
IBM-PC. If this is so, many standard 
software applications should run off- 
the- shelf. 

9. A serial RS-232C port can be used 




for a modem or serial printer. A 
parallel printer is not supported. 
1 0. There is a Reset button at the back 
of battery compartment which 
unfortunately clears Drive A when 
pressed. I pressed it — and cleared 
Drive A (in RAM). I then had to refor- 
mat it using the FORMAT com- 
mand. 

Additions costly 

To add ROM software, a 'software 
drawer' needs to be purchased. It can 
hold up to 24 plug-in ROMS. 

In the review model were ROM ver- 
sions of Lotus 1-2-3, Microsoft Word, 
Memomaker and Time Manager as well 
as HP and VT-102 Terminal Emulators. 
All this, including the software drawer, 
would set you back about $4000. 

To add more memory, a 'memory 
drawer' needs to be purchased. The 
drawer and a 1 28 K memory card would 
cost you $1 500. 

The RAM is expandable to 896K. The 
review computer had 51 2K — at an extra 
cost of $3984. 

Thus, the computer as I got it, includ- 
ing software and 51 2K memory, costs 
around $13000. 

The peripherals that came with it were 
the Thinkjet Printer and the portable 
3 1 /2-inch disk drive. Together they cost 
$3200. The HP Plotters start around 
$3000. 

The carrying case for the computer 
and peripherals is around $300. And if 
you're keen on some blank plastic over- 
lays for your function keys, be prepared 
to spend $65 for 5 of them. 

HP also offer a maintenance contract. 

Mobility 

Now, to the computer itself. 

It's light yet reassuringly solid and 
feels a professional product — there's a 
lot packed in its small case. 

This computer is aimed at mobile pro- 
fessionals such as middle managers 
and sales professionals. With it they 
could conned to a mainframe back at 
the office and download sales informa- 
tion.or process a memo or report, set an 
alarm and diary or operate a spread- 
sheet such as Lotus 1 -2-3. 

Opening up the top revealed the 
screen and keyboard. One touch of a 
key brought up PAM — the Personal 
Applications Manager — which is a, 
menu for applications programs instal- 



Hardware review 



led both as ROMs and otherwise. 

The first thing you notice is that the 
screen is difficult to read. The press 
release asserts it is an 'anti-glare' 
screen but it is still not 'easy to read' 
unless your head position and the light 
are just right. 

I finally got a readable position in 
muted light shining directly on the 
screen — against a window it is almost 
impossible. 

This is the unredeeming feature on all 
LCD screen portables. The Data Gen- 
eral One and the Morrow Pivot are the 
same. 

Ghostly images 

I tried to use MS Word to write this 
review but gave up as my eyes peered 
sightlessly at ghosts of words that 
appeared to shift every time I blinked. 

Using the cursor keys to choose from 
the PAM menu, another keystroke got 
me into another application. 

First of all, MS-DOS. 

As MS-DOS 2.11 is built-in, all the 
standard commands and files are there 
at your fingertips. CHKDSK, EDLIN and 
even DEBUG are there although the 
manual only discusses a few of the DOS 
commands. These are: 



CD (Change Directory), COPY (Copy or 
Append a file), DIR (List a directory), 
EXIT (a special HP command to exit 
from DOS to PAM), FORMAT (Format a 
Disk, external or internal), MORE (Used 
to display a file page by page), PRINT 
(queue a file for printing) , RE N (Rename 
a file) and TYPE (Display a text file). 

Any more and you will need to buy the 
HP MS- DOS Users Guide from HP 
($80). 

There is a mistake in the Manual, 
Page 1 0-2, where they state that REN is 
used to renumber (instead of rename-a- 
file). 

Another nuisance was that if I tried to 
access external drive C when it was not 
connected, the computer 'hung' and 
needed a warm reboot (with CTRL 
SHIFT BREAK) to start again. 

No warning 

The system can be configured to 
divide the memory between the E-disk 
(RAM disk) and Program and user RAM. 

I entered the System Configure area 
and changed the length of the 'beep' 
from long to short. On exiting I found I 
had destroyed my data on Drive A, 
which needed formatting yet again. 

No warning on screen or in the Manual 





was given that it would do this. , 
traps for young players. 

Using the ROM version of Lotus 1 -2-3 
Version 1 A — it's the real thing and very 
fast. I rapidly produced a graph from 
data and it looked very good. The pie 
graph is a little distorted but quite 
adequate. 

Recalculation is fast as well. 

The Utilities, Tutorial and Printgraph 
come on a separate disk. 

The ROM version of MS-WORD Is 
probably more sophisticated than 
necessary for most word processing 
needs. It is cetainly powerful and fast on 
this HP. Again, the Utilities and Tutorial 
come on a separate disk. 

Printing text on the battery-operated 
thermal Thinkjet printer was easy and 
the final product looked professional. 

Running your own software requires 
that you load it from your desktop PC 
using a special HP connection or 
download it directly from the HP Porta- 
ble SVa-inch drive. The drive formats 
disks to 71 OK. 

Uncertainty 

Not having the connectors, I could not 
try this function. My gut-reaction would 
be that MS-DOS comaptible software 
would run easily and PC-DOS software 
like BASICA and SIDEKICK would prob- 
ably have BIOS compatibility problems. 

This isn't unusual and most commer- 
cial software is MS-DOS oriented rather 
than specifically PC-DOS. 

The Manuals accompanying the com- 
puter and software were clear but 
perhaps a little cluttered. 

They would definitely be useful for a 
first-time user. 

That's about it. The HP Portable Plus 
computer and accessories could be very 
useful for those who need the capability 
of ROM software or terminal emulation 
away from the office. 

The screen readability varies with the 
light and is a problem. 

It's also expensive by today's stan- 
dards but stands as a good, solid, 
respectable piece of hardware. 

(Contirnxi<i47) 






a 



Bits & Byies - December 1 985 45 



MODORI 




NOW AVAILABLE W , TH . NLQ . (Optional) 

Available from preferred dealers throughout New Zealand. Contact the master a\ 
for the name of your nearest retailer. 

WAR BURTON FRANK! UNIT B, 192 wairau rd., glenfield, aucklanc 

PRIVATE BAG, TAKAPUNA, AUCKLAND, TELEX: Nl 
A DIVISION OF ANI NZ LTD TELEPHONE: (09) 444-2645 

(04) 693-016 (WELLINGTON DIRECT 



Hardware review 



(Continued tram page 4$) 

Dave Holland, of Hewlett-Packard 
NZ,comments on the HP 1 10's "value 
for money": 

An evaluation of "value for money" 
requires three processes: 
— Quantify the cost; 

— Quantify the benefits: 

— Compare the above. 
Quantifying benefits is not easy and 

requires a detailed knowledge of user 
requirements. For this reason, "value for 
money" requires that each prospective 
portable computer purchaser needs to 
do his/her own evaluation. 

The "Portable Plus" is aimed at the 
"mobile executive" market. To the 
executive who commits himself to a 
portable computer, it becomes a critical 
tool for his job and company. It needs to 
be physically as reliable as a diary (in- 
deed they often double as diaries), 
available for use at all times, and as 
portable as possible — as well as being 
able to perform the required tasks. 

The executives who purchase Hew- 
lett-Packard's Portable and Portable 
Plus computers tend to be in medium to 
large organizations and in a dynamic 
environment. One of the most success- 
ful areas of the market for the Portable 
and Portable Plus is that of multi- 
national accounting firms. These very 
companies are those who most closely 
scrutinize return on investment (or 
"value for money". 

In conclusion: 

— The Portable Plus is not cheap; 

— As an executive, you should evaluate 
its value to you; 

— The Portable Plus may be the best 
value for money on the market for you — 
depending on your requirements. 



Packet Switching PCs 

The Auckland-based consultancy 
Topcode has developed X25 protocol 
software for IBM personal computers 
and compatibles. The software package 
allows direct connection of PC's to the 
WZPO packet switching network, with 
speeds up to 9600 BPS, thereby provid- 
ing access to world-wide packet switch- 
ing commnications. 

Previously, direct "packet mode" con- 
nections were restricted to mainframe or 
mini computers, claims Topcode. 

National and International access to a 
great number of databases, telex, elec- 
tronic mail services, etc. becomes avail- 
able at minimum cost. 

Videotex access is also possible via 
the same connection. 



MICROCOMPUTER SUMMARY 


Name: 


HP Portable Plus 


Manufacturer: 


Hewlett Packard 


Size: 


1 3 x 1 x 3 inches (32x25x7.5cm) 


Weight: 


under4Kgms 


Display: 


25 line x 80 col 




200x480 graphics 
■flip top' LCD Screen 




Keyboard 


typewriter-style 75 key matrix 


Battery Life 


20 hours. Rechargeable Lead-acid internal batteries. 


CPU 


CMOS 80CB6 running at 5.33 MHz 


Memory 


1 92 K CMOS ROM 




1 28 K CMOS RAM expandable to 896K. 


In ROM 


Diagnostics, Security, Clock/Alarm, HP Link. 


Operating System 


MS-DOS 2.11 in ROM 


Terminal Emulation 


HP and IBM. DEC VT 102 


Disc Drive 


Internal electronic RAM Disk (called E-disk) 




External portable 31/2 inch drive available 


Price 


$5290 


Peripherals 


Battery-powered Thinkjet printer and 




3 1/2 inch disk drive. Plotters. 


Software: 


ROM-based: 




Lotus 1 -2-3, MS- Word, PC 2622 (Ver. 




3.0), Memomaker/Time Manager, 




Executive Card Manager 




Disk-based: 




Most of the popular range of business software 




and Infocomgames 


Ratings: 


Documentation 4, 


(5 highest) 


Expansion 4, Portability 5, 




Software availability 3, Value for money 2. 



— PANDA Soft International p.o. box 4446 Auckland — 

BOY YOUR SOFTWARE DIRECT FROM THE MSX AND 
SPECTRAVIDEO SPECIALISTS: 

ESVAY The computer version of the famous YaBhee game. Features 

excellent graphics and provides hours of entertainment for the 

whole family. 
WORDS Two programs. HUSSLE and CONVICT that Lest your skills in 

guessing and unraffling words. Very good graphics 
MIND Another 2 in I . This time your observation skills are tested and 

trained in two programs that combine good graphics and challenge. 
DRAW This graphics drawing program has superb features through an 

easy to follow menu requires no special tools. Print option provided. 
rjTlL Three programs: REMSPC. NEWDSK and SCRDMP that 

provide assistance to SV1 disk users for program and disk 

maintenance. Disk only, 
MT-BASE A superb data base program with 7 sample templates already 

built in Extremely user friendly with on screen referral to help 

pages in the manual. Cartridge and MSX format onry. s 149.00 




THIS MONTH ONLY SPECIAL!! 

Baseless joystick, latest 
novelty! Can't break the 
handle. For VIC20, SVI. Atari 
etc $t 5.00 ONLY 



Unless otherwise stated 

programs are available in 

SM and MSX format, on 

tape or disk Tape version: 

$29.95 Disk versions tesp. 

$34.95 (5.25") and $39.95(3.5"). 



Write now lo PANDA SOFT International P0 Box 4446 Auckland 

with details ol Title. Format. Tape or Disk. Quantity, and enclose cheque or money for the 

total amount HO CHARGE FOR POSTAGE! Don't lorget your name and address 

Well let you know about new titles arriving, out hurry' Quantities ot above titles are limited 



Bits & Bytes - December 198S 47 



Apple 



Achieving the Impossible' 



By Grant Collison 

Have you ever wondered whether you 
should believe that something is impos- 
sible just because the local dealers 
inform you that it "can't be done"? 

Is it really possible to boot a disk in 
drive two, or to erase a write protected 
disk without making hardware modifica- 
tions? 

February last year I tackled the first 
problem: that of booting a disk in the sec- 
ond drive. My method is revealed below. 

It didn't stop there though. The Apple 
lie now has this capability built in. Who 
else wanted to do the impossible? 

Brief overview of the 
bootstrap process 

When the computer is first switched on 
the user types PR#n, IN#n, CnOOG or 
n<ctrl>P (where n is the disk drive con- 
troller card slot), control is eventually 
given to a small 250 byte program (cal- 
led BOOT 0) which is in ROM on the disk 
controller card. 

We only need know that BOOT per- 
forms all disk reading and decoding until 
the Read and Write a Track and Sector 
(RWTS) routine is loaded. BOOT can- 
not write to the disk, nor can it move the 
drive head to another track. 

BOOT D is responsible for reading 
track sector (called BOOT 1 ) into the 
computer at $800. It then passes control 
to BOOT 1 . 

BOOT 1 uses BOOT as a sub- 
routine, and loads the first ten sectors 
from track (called BOOT 2) at SB600 
for a machine with at least 48k memory 



($3600 master disk). BOOT 2 also con- 
tains the RWTS subroutine. 

At this stage control is passed to 
BOOT 2 which loads the rest of DOS and 
your HELLO program. Control is then 
given to the Hello program. 

The problem 

The prime objective is to alter any preset 
drive defaults to 'drive two'. We will need 
to maintain overall control until our prime 
objective is complete. 

We shall assume that your disk con- 
troller card is in slot 6. Memory size is not 
important since this routine will alter 
itself accordingly. 

1 . First get into the monitor (not liter- 
ally) by typing CALL-151 (from the Basic 
prompt). You should now see a '" 
prompt. 

CALL-151 
Enters the monitor 

2. Move BOOT to RAM, since ROM 
cannot be modified. 

4600<C600.C6F7M 
Relocates BOOT 0. 

3. The instruction for selecting drive 
one is now located at $4635. 4635- BD 
8A CO LDA $C08A,X When the location 
$C08A+$60 (for slot 6) is referenced 
drive one is selected. To select drive two 
we must reference $C08B,X. Hence 
perform the change below. 

4636;8B 

Forces BOOT to use drive two 

4. We perform the following routine 
before jumping to BOOT 1 , so that con- 
trol comes back to us after BOOT 2 has 



The great equaliser 



Computers could be the great 
equaliser as far as children from less 
favoured areas are concerned. That's 
the word from Mrs Anne Gluckman, prin- 
cipal of the Nga Tapuwae school in the 
Auckland suburb of Mangere. 

She says that even those children 
who have not previously done particu- 
larly well in traditional academic school- 
ing, "seem to go for computers like 
ducks to water." 

She was commenting on her experi- 
ence since her school bought 1 5 Apple 
lie computers about ten months ago. 

She says that her predominantly 
Maori and Polynesian children originally 
became familiar with computer technol- 
ogy in video game parlours. Now every 
pupil is gaining 'hands on' experience 
and seniors are working on complex 
programmes. 

Sne said their attitude has been highly 
enthusiastic and the problem has been 

48 Bits & Bytes - December 1985 



more one of getting them off the comput- 
ers rather than getting them on. 

"Not only have their skill levels 
increased since we installed these com- 
puters, but their self confidence has 
increased also, because they feel now 
for the first time they can compete 
equally in the job market." 

She cautions against seeing comput- 
ers as some kind of universal panacea 
for the ills of the education system. 
"There's still a long way to go, because 
the fact remains that for academic suc- 
cess and vocational awareness, the 
input from home is still very important in 
helping young people reach their full 
potential." 

"Perhaps it is just our unique combi- 
nation of pupils, staff and computers 
which has worked for us, but the early 
successes of our experiment with com- 
puters have exceeded our boldest 
expectations." 



been loaded. 

46F8- A9 4C LDA #$4C 
46FA- 8D 4A 08 STA $084A 
46FD- A9 0A LDA #$0A 
46FF- 8D 4B 08 STA $084B 
4702- A9 47 LDA #$47 
4704- 8D 4C 08 STA $084C 
Forces BOOT 1 to jump back to 
$470A (our program) when BOOT 2 has 
been read into memory. 
4707- 4C 01 08 JMP $0801 
Jumps to BOOT 1 

5. Now that we have control again we 
must alter the drive default used by 
BOOT 2 to 'drive two'. Where BOOT 2 
first loads depends upon the computers 
memory size, and whether the disk con- 
tains a Master or Slave version of DOS. 
However the memory page that BOOT 2 
was loaded at is stored at $8FE. We will 
get this value and alter the location that 
we must change, just before we get to 
the instruction. 

470A- AD FE 08 LDA $08FE 
470D- 8D 14 47 STA $4714 
Finds out where BOOT 2 was loaded 
and store this value at 'XX'. 
4710- A9 02 LDA #$02 
4712- 8D 07 B7 STA $XX07 
Tells BOOT 2 that we are using drive 
two now, 

4715- 6C FD 0B JMP ($08FD) 
Jumps to BOOT 2 (at the location 
pointed to by $8FD and $8FE. 

To save this routine on disk type 
BSAVE BOOTDR2, A$4600, L$118 

To boot drive two either BRUIS 
BOOTDR2 or type 4600G from the 
monitor. 

Comments 
The BOOTDR2 routine will only work 
with standard DOS disks or protected 
disks that follow a DOS type approach In 
bootstrapping. 

BOOTDR2 is superior to other drive 
boot programs in that the disk is actualh 
booted. Some programs read the boot 
files name and execute this. 

BOOTDR2 does not alter your disk or 
computer in any way. Disks will only boot 
in drive two if this program is used to 
boot the disk. 




Instant quotes 

An Auckland contractor is saving ■ 
hours a week preparing quotes on ( 
garages he builds. 

Brian Keane now has his secretarj 
spending half-an-hour a day working < 
quotes that used to take him a ful work- 
ing week, by using an Apple Macintosf 
XL (formerly Lisa) computer and a pre 
ramme written by engineer David Be 
the owner of Computer World in Auc 
land. 



Clashes and commands 



By Savern Reweti 



Atari 



The fight between Atari and Commo- 
dore for the lucrative home computer 
market is really hotting up. 

This is demonstrated locally by the 
price discounting of both Atari and Com- 
modore machines. 

In the USA the competition has been 
particularly fierce. Commodore recently 
budgeting US$40m for advertising 
alone, mainly pinned on the Amiga com- 
puter. 

Atari has responded with its new ST 
computers (how about a 512K machine 
for NZ$1 .800?). 

Whatever the outcome, their futures 
will depend on software support. But 
industry reports suggest software 
houses are suffering from an industry 
"fatigue", and are not eager to respond 
to these mega-machines. 

When the smoke clears an eventual 
winner should emerge. 

I've got my money on Atari, under the 
aggressive leadership of its new boss 
JackTramiel. 

But let's put corporate blood-letting to 
one side, and turn to more grassroots 
matters. 



The Atari computers have in most 
models five extra command keys i.e. 
HELP, START, SELECT, OPTION and 
RESET. Although commercial programs 
use them extensively I suspect the 
amateur programmer tends to avoid 
them. 

To ascertain whether or not these 
keys have been pressed we have to 
PEEK into certain memory locations. If 
we PEEK (764), we find the internal 
code for the last key pressed. This func- 



tion is ideal for interrupting a program, 
and avoiding the use of delay loops. 

The HELP key should be utilised for 
program instructions. To check if it has 
been pressed we need to PEEK into 
memory location 732- Pressing the 
HELP key returns a value of 17, SHIFT- 
HELP returns a value of 8, and CTRL- 
HELP returns a value of 145. 

The OPTION, SELECT, and START 
keys are accessed at memory location 
53279. Pressing these keys, individually 
or in combination, returns values rang- 
ing from to 7. 



It is then quite easy to PEEK into these 
memory locations, check the value 
rturned, and then conditionally branch to 
a subroutine or to another part of the 
program e.g. 20 IF PEEK (732) = 17 
THEN GOSUB 1000. 

You must remember that these num- 
bers are internal codes and not ASCII 
codes. 

I have written a very simple program 
to demonstrate the use of these keys, 
and to display the appropriate codes. 

Please note the three different 
methods of clearing the screen. 

Also, as a little test, try and find the key 
to end the program. 

In conclusion, I will leave you with a 
few powerful Atari pokes. 
POKE 752, 1 — turns cursor off 
POKE 752, — turns cursor on 
POKE 16, 64, POKE 53774, 64 — dis- 
ables the Break key 

POKE 202, 1 — clears current program 
from memory 

P.S. Next month we will have a look at 
Atari string arrays. 



Impossible' revenge 

By Michael Fletcher 



Montezuma's Revenge follows the 
pattern of Shamus II, and is packed with 
nasties which you encounter while find- 
ing keys to unlock cavern doors through 
which you progress to reach levels two 
and three. 

The revenge aspect may be that of the 
programmer's, because I found level 
two impossible to battle through — 
mainly because of parts of the cavern 
being in darkness and there being no 
way of knowing where there await holes 
in the platforms. 



You have just two defences, a bonus 
sword, and a jump option — the basic 
skill required, as in most games, is tim- 
ing. 

You learn some action tips on the way: 
act fast on platforms, take your time with 
fire hazards, 

Graphics are fast, detailed and run 
smoothly, while sound is almost non- 
existent. 

This game was purchased directly 
from a US outlet, Huntington Computers 
Ltd, and requires 32 Kram. 



1 REM * DEMO KEY PRESS* 

2 REM # BY SAVERN OCT as * 

3 GRAPHICS OJSETCOLQR 2,3,4: POKE 732,1 

4 GOSUB 50 

5 POSITION 10,15 

ft ? "PRESS ANY KEY TO START" 

7 IF PEEK I 7ft4 1-233 THEN 7 

8 POKE 732,0: POKE 7ft4, 253; POKE 33279,7 

9 7 CHR«i 1251 :GOSUB 45:G0SUB 30 

10 POSITION 2,10:? "OP/SE/ST "1A 
20 POSITION 17,10:7 'HELP "IB 

22 POSITION 26,10:? "ANY KEY "1C 

23 POSITION 12,13:? "PRESS KEY FOR CODE" 
23 SOSUB 45: GOSUB 34 

30 POSITION 11,10:? AlPOSITION 22,10 
35 ¥ B! ' ": POSITION 34,101? CI' » 
40 GOTO 25 

45 A-PEEK (332791 ;B=PEEK(7321 :C -PEEK (764) 

46 IF COZB THEN RETURN 
48 POKE 752,0:? •K-IEND 

50 POSITION 14, a: ? "DEMO KEY PRESS" 
52 RETURN 

54 IF D-C THEN RETURN 

55 FOR Z-lft TO STEP - 1 : SOUND 1,C,10,2 

56 NEXT Z:D=C: RETURN 




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Bils & Bytes - December 1 985 AS 



Reviews 



More and More Games! 



Reviewed by Andrew Mitchell 




Here are another five games, all on 
tape, which Alpine Computing has 
supplied for review. 

I'll remind you of their postal service 
again, as my recent visit to a large rural 
city showed that it was not well serviced 
by one dedicated computer shop. 



Bumping Buggies 



Basically you're driving a car in the 
original Pitstop style, but there's more to 
it than that. You are able to bump and 
bounce the other cars off the track — 
and get points for it. 

But be careful, the same can happen 



to you. 

In adition to the usual speed up, slow 
down, left and right joystick control, the 
fire button allows you to jump, as long as 
you're doing more than 100km/hr. This 
is necessary to avoid some of the 
hazards ahead. 

The graphics are fairly basic and 
blocky. but I think the action makes up 
for it, and although the action is also 
fairly simple, it is as addictive as the cas- 
sette cover suggests. 

Nothing really original but if you're 
looking for another, or a first, care-race 
game (costing $19.95) then this cer- 
tainly deserves more than a passing 
glance. 



Aqua Racer 

Another Bubble Bus beaut! Drive a 
speedboat through up to 20 different 
courses against other boats. 

Graphics are good enough for the 
price (S19.95), the action is very good, 
with an excellent choice to playing 
speeds. 

Of course, you have to be fast to be 
competitive. A real plus for me is the 
inclusion of demo and practice modes, 
something missing from many expen- 
sive programmes these days. 

{Conrmugd on page 52 



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SO Bils & Bytes - December 1985 



Amstrad. 



Redesigning characters 



By Craig Beaumont 



About one in 700 people in Mew Zea- 
land owns an Amstrad and 30% usedis- 
kdrives — figures from Grandstand. 

Another figure from Grandstand is the 
price of the 6128. 

Probably Grandstand cannot face 
pricing the 6128 lower than its stocks of 
the 664 (held by dealers). 

To get away from figures we'll take a 
small step in semantics to characters. 

The SYMBOL command allows any 
character to be redesigned to look as 
you wish. If we view a character as 8 
rows of 8 pixels, then the SYMBOL com- 
mand gives us the ability to turn on or off 
each pixel in each row. 

The arguments of the command are 
first the ASCII code of the character to 
be redesigned then a list of numbers cor- 
responding to the 8 rows from top to bot- 
tom. 

What number to use in specifying 
each row is best explained by this diag- 
ram (which was drawn using Screen 
Designer). 



128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 



124 

68 

68 

126 

98 

98 

126 



Each pixel has a value for when it is on 
— determined by which column it is in. 
When a pixel is off it has a value of zero. 
To specify a whole row just add together 
the values for the pixels you want on. So 
the top row of the "B" has a value of 
64+32+16+8+4=124. 

The " B " is one of the characters i n the 
attached program which sets up the 
alphanumeric parts of the character set 
to look like the title on the cover of Bits & 
Bytes. 

Before you start redisigning charac- 
ters you must use the SYMBOL AFTER 
command to allocate memory for storing 
the characters. Its argument is the ASCI I 
code of the character before the first one 
you want to change. 

If you want to return back to the built-in 
character set just execute SYMBOL 
AFTER again and it will clear whatever 
characters you have designed. 

If you need to use the MEMORY com- 
mand in a program, then execute it after 
the SYMBOL AFTER command. 



When typing in the program I found it 
helped to redefine the ENTER on the 
keypad by entering — KEY 139, 
"DATA". The program only gives upper 
case letters — I'm sure you can design 
your own lower case letters and punctu- 
ation symbols. Perhaps you could even 
design a character set that links each let- 
ter like hand writing. 

Another use of the SYMBOL com- 
mand (apart from making "space invad- 
ers") is the creation of characters that 
are repeatedly needed to build up pic- 
tures — multi-screen games use this 
technique to save memory. 

Screen designer 

While using Screen Designer I found 
among its other features is the ability to 
locate characters anywhere on the 
screen. While you can do this using the 
TAG command it is a lot easier with the 
graphics cursor before your eyes. 

Screen Designer has all the usual fea- 
tures of a graphics package like fill, cir- 
cles and magnify — all accessible from 
keyboard in a way that makes use of the 
program relatively fluid after a little prac- 
tice. 

One omission is that it does not dis- 
play the co-ordinates of the graphics 
cursor in numerical terms — this can be 
helpful when working on geometric 
designs. 

This package is being eclipsed by LP- 
1, the light pen, which comes with 
software to allow you to do similar opera- 
tions as Screen Designer but through a 
more user-friendly medium than the 
keyboard. 

The LP-1 requires a colour monitor 
and at about $70 is good value for bud- 
ding computer artists. 

Another peripheral being released is 
the DMP-2000 — an Amstrad version of 
the Riteman C+ which gives NLQ (near 
letter quality) print. The DMP-2000 is a 
great improvement over the DMP- 1 and 
it sells for the same price — $695, 

Well the first contribution to this col- 
umn is from Geoff Jacobson of Naenae. 
He says you can get infinite lives on 
Manic Miner by Software Projects by fol- 
lowing this procedure. 

1. Type MEMORY &506D 

2. Load the set of blocks after the 
screen. 

3. Type POKE &6E25,0:CALL &506E 

It should now be much easier to com- 
plete the game. 

I think software Projects realises the 
sales of Manic Miner were increasd due 
to the popularity of pseudo-hacking like 
this — so they have put the Amstrad ver- 
sion out without protection. 

Whatever I said about the price of the 
6128. it still represents good value for 



money. 

I expect it is the final version of the 8- 
bit line of Amstrads — the 664, it seems, 
was really just a trial model for the incor- 
poration of adiskdrive. 

10 REM Character Set 
20 SYMBOL AFTER 4? 
30 DATA 60,36,36,126,98,98,98 
40 DATA 124 ,68,68, 126,98,98, L26 
50 DATA 126,66,64,96,98,98,126 
60 DATA 124, £6, 66, 9B, 98, 98, 124 
70 DATA 126,64,64,124,96,36,126 
80 DATA 126,64,64,124,96,96,96 
90 DATA 126,66,64,110,98,98,126 
100 DATA 66,66,66,126,98,38,98 
1!0 DATA 16,16,16,24,24,24,24 
120 DATA 4,4,4,6,70,70,126 
!30 DATA 6B, 68, 68, 126,98,98,98 
140 DATA 64,64,64,96,96,96,126 
150 DATA 126,74,74,106,106,106,106 
160 DATA 126,66,66,98,98,98,98 
170 DATA 126,70,70,70,66,66,126 
180 DATA 124,68,68,124,96,36,96 
190 DATA 126,66,66,66,66,94,126 
200 DATA 124,68,68,126,98,98,98 
210 DATA 126,66,64,126,6,70,126 
220 DATA 126,16,16,24,24,24,24 
230 DATA 66,66,66,98,98,98,126 
240 DATA 93,38,98,102,36,36,60 
250 DATA 74,74,74,106,106,106,126 
260 DATA 36,36,36,126,98,98,98 
270 DATA 66,66,66,126,24,24,24 
280 DATA 126,66,6,126,96,66,126 
290 DATA 126,66,66,70,70,70,126 
300 DATA 8,3,8,24,24,24,24 
310 DATA 126,56,2,126,96,96,126 
320 DATA 124,68,4,62,6,70,126 
330 DATA 124,68,68,126,12,12,12 
340 DATA 126,66,64,126,6,6,126 
350 DATA 126,64,64,126,70,70,126 
360 DATA 126,2,2,6,6,6,6 
370 DATA 60,36,36,126,70,70,126 
380 DATA 126,66,66,126,6,70,126 
390 FOR i=65 TO 90 
400 READ a,b,i:,d,e,f,g 
410 SYMBOL i,a,b,-:,d,e,f,g,0 
420 SYMBOL i+32,a,b,':,d,e,t,g,0 
430 NEXT 

440 FOR i=46 TG 57 
450 READ a,i),c,ii,e,f,g 
460 SYMBOL i,a,!v:,d,*,f,g F 
470 NEXT 

Bits & Bytes - December 1 985 51 



Reviews 




(Continued from page SO) 

A new variation on an old theme and 
good value for money. Certainly a holi- 
day consideration. 

Wizzards Lair 

Rather like "Sorcery", reviewed in the 
last batch. 

Call me simple perhaps, but I object to 
having to belt around at full speed, trying 
to find something in what seems an end- 
less maze of rooms. 

Of course it isn't really endless, and if 
you had the time (and patience) you 
could map them out. 

There are so many meanies around, 
sapping your energy (including two who 
mean instant death), that you spend 
most of the time avoiding them. 

The graphics are certainly good, and 
there's action aplenty, but when I 



finished the session, wringing wet from 
the tension, I wondered whether it was 
all worth it. 



Zaga Mission 



A helicopter mission after the style of 
"Zaxxon", flying over and under walls, 
down narrow corridors and through ran- 
domly opening and closing electronic 
fields. 

The graphics are a little shoddy, the 
helicopters 's tail actually sticks through 
walls on occasions. 

Control was very responsive with the 
joystick and movements of the helicop- 
ter reasonably realistic. 

I think this is a little overpriced (at 
$29,95) considering what is available at 
the same price — "Super Huey" 
immediately springs to mind. 



Slapshot 



What a great game, but only for two 
players, so be warned those that only 
have one joystick or only play on their 
own. 

Ice hockey is the game and it's as 
near as a programme can get in my esti- 
mation. 



You can hit the puck with varying 
degrees of strength, and you can body- 
check other players. 

However be careful — this game does 
have rules you know. 

The goalies also have a certain 
amount of extra movements that allow 
for goal saves. 

There is a speech synthesiser which 
adds a little to the interest although I 
don't think that it is much of an additional 
selling point. 

If you have a partner or friend and you 
both enjoy competing then this (at 
$29.95) is the game for you. 



Muddy vision 



British Telecom has opened its new 
version of Mud, the multi-user dungeon 
adventure game, and there will be 
intense competition to be first to gain the 
limitless powers of a wizard (then try to 
stop everyone else). 

The battle will not be short as il 
requires 204,800 points. 

The Mud manual is coy about the 
advantages: "Once you become a 
wizard (says BT) we will make contact 
with you and tell you what you need to 
know, and exactly what you can do with 
your new powers." 



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52 Bits & Byles- December 1985 






Spectrum 




Run-down on Add-ons 



By Gary Parker 



Nobody can deny that the Spectrum is 
a bit short of connections to the outside 
world. 

It has no in-built printer interface, no 
joystick ports, no disk interface, no 
sound chip.. .the list goes on. 

Of course all these things and more 
are available as separate plug-in inter- 
faces, but this variety can be confusing 
for the user wishing to expand the Spec- 
trum. 

So this month I'll take a generalised 
look at the types of add-ons that are 
available for the Spectrum. 

First choice 

The add-on most people seem to want 
first is a joystick interface. Since there 
are many types available, this is also 
perhaps the most difficult interface to 
choose. The most important question 
you will need to ask when shopping for a 
joystick interface is "How many games 
will it work with?" 

Some joysticks imitate the cursor 
keys, and so wiil only work with software 
which uses these keys. Others, such as 
Sinclair's Interface Two, imitate other 
keys. 

The Sinclair interface allows two joys- 
ticks to be used, one imitating keys 1-5, 
and the other 6-10. Quite a few games 
offer a Sinclair option, buy many others 
don't support Sinclair's unusual choice 
of keys. 

Kempston-type joystick interfaces 
don't imitate keys at all. Instead, they 
use an IN command, so only software 
which specifically offers a Kempston 
option will work with this type of inter- 
face. 

More recently, interfaces have 
appeared which combine several joys- 
tick interfaces. They can act as a cursor, 
a Sinclair, or a Kempston joystick. Such 
interfaces will work with more software, 
but also cost more. 

The most versatiie joystick interface is 
a programmable one. This type of inter- 
face allows you to tell it which keys it 
should mimic, and so works with practi- 
cally all software. 

There are several types of programm- 
able joystick interface available. Some 
require a short program to be loaded 
before you can program the keys, while 
others have this program in their own 
memory. With these you only have to 
push the joystick in each direction fol- 
lowed by the appropriate key before you 
can begin loading the game. 

Others have a grid of sockets repre- 
senting the keyboard, and you push five 
plugs into the appropriate sockets to 
program the keys to be mimicked. 



Printers 



Now that full-size printers are coming 
down in price, printer interfaces are 
becoming popular. 

Most printers have a Centronics-type 
interface, and so require a Centronics- 
type interface on the Spectrum. Several 
brands are available, and there isn't a lot 
to choose from between them. 

The major difference is that some 
require a short program to be loaded, 
while others have the program held in 
their own memory. 

Sometimes interfaces are advertised 
which appear cheap, but beware — the 
cost of the connection ribbon is often not 
included with these. The wire ribbon can 
cost about a third as much as the inter- 
face. 

Some combination interfaces are 
available which will work with both Cen- 
tronics-type and RS-232 printers, and 
these seem good value for money, 
although I haven't actually used one. 

Music 

Music synthesizer interfaces with a 
programmable sound chip allow you to 
produce music with several simultane- 
ous voices, similar to that available with 
the BBC and other computers. 

Most of the sound chips available pro- 
duce similar sound with a similar number 
of voices (often three musical voices 
plus a white noise generator). 

The feature to look for with a sound 
chip interface is ease of programming — 
just how easy is it to produce music? 

Having to use scores of POKES to 
play a tune is no fun, and a piece of good 
software to do the hard work for you is 
necessary. 

Voice 

Similar to music synthesizer inter- 
faces are voice synthesizer interfacs. As 
with sound chips, ease of programming 
is important. Most voice synthesizers 
require that you write the speech as 
phonemes, held in a string variable. 

Interfaces are available which allow 
any program in memory to be saved to 
tape or microdrive. In effect these are a 
sophisticated copying program. Since 
the program is in the interface, none of 
the computer's memory is taken up, and 
even very large programs can be 
copied. 

Whether such an interface is worth 
buying depends on how important it is to 
you to have back-up copies of your com- 



mercial software. By the way, you can't 
use the interface to pirate software, 
because the copied software will only 
run with the same interface in place. 

I've seen one interface advertised 
which allows you to 'slow down and live 
longer' — intriguing! What the interface 
actually does is allow you to slow down 
the speed of programs. Of course some 
games have several speed options built- 
in, but you might enjoy playing other 
games in siow motion. 



Disk interfaces 



Disk interlaces are among the more 
expensive Spectrum add-ons. Some 
include the disk drive in the price, while 
with others you choose your own drive. 

Generally the ones with a drive 
supplied work out cheaper, but use a 
cheap drive with low capacity (100- 
200K). 

If you want a 'real' disk of 500-1 00OK 
you should get an interface which allows 
you to connect a variety of interfaces, 
such as the Kempston interface 
reviewed in this column a couple of 
months ago. 

Similar to disk interfaces are wafer- 
drive and tape-cartridge interfaces. 
Most well-known of these is, of course, 
Sinclair's Interface One, which allows 
microdrives to be connected. 

A good alternative is a waferdrive unit. 
These use cassettes roughly the same 
size as audio cassettes, and contain a 
long continuous loop of tape similar to 
microdrives. 

The access times and storage 
capacities are similar to microdrives, but 
shorter cassettes are also available 
(such as 1 6K) which have faster access 
times. 

The Rotronics waferdrive system con- 
tains two waferdrive units, an RS-232 
and a Centronics interface, and comes 
with an excellent word processing prog- 
ram. 



Graphic aids 



There are a few graphic-aid interfaces 
available, such as light pens, drawing 
arms, and graphics tablets. 

Light pens are relatively inexpensive, 
but only allow you to draw things directly 
on the screen. 

Graphics tablets allow you to draw on 
a board, with a pen or an arm. These are 
very useful if you use your Spectrum for 
drawing, but are also quite expensive. 

I have also seen digital-analog inter- 

f Continued an page 84) 
Bits a Bytes - December 1 965 53 



Spectravidi so 



Opening sg & closing ^ files 



By Don Stanley 

There are a number of devices that 
SVBasic can open for writing to or read- 
ing from. In this article 1 will explore each 
of these in detail with examples of how to 
use them. Anything which is not applica- 
ble to MSX is marked as such in the text. 

Device 1 - CAS: 



CAS: is the default device. Whenever 
you use an OPEN statement (or a 
BLOAD/LOAD/BASAVE/SAVE) without 
a device Baste assumes CAS:, Thus the 
statements: 

OPEN "FRED" FOR OUTPUT AS 1 
and 

OPEN "CAS:FRED" FOR OUTPUT 
AS1 

are considered- identical by Basic. The 
statement causes a tape header to be 
written on the tape at the current point, 
and prepares for data to be written to the 
tape. 

To write to the tape you generally use 
a PRINT statement with a file number 
option. This takes the form: 

PRINT #1,var 

The #1 refers back to the OPEN stat- 
ment. You can have up to 15 files 
OPENed at once, and the *n identifies 
which file the current operation refers to. 
varis the variable whose value you wish 
to write onto the file. In order to OPEN 
more than 1 file, put the statement: 

MAXFILES = nn {nn between 1 and 
15) 
before you attempt to OPEN any files. 

When writing to a tape you may find 
that the tape output appears not to occur 
— i.e. the LED does not come on and the 
cassette motor does not start. This is 
because the cassette system will not 
attempt to write a record until either the 
buffer is full (255 bytes) or you CLOSE 
the file. Try this to see what I mean: 
10 OPEN "FRED" FOR OUTPUT 
AS 1 

20 PRINT #1, "LINE 1" 
30A$=INPUT$(1) 
40 PRINT #1, "LINE 2" 
50A$=INPUT$(1) 
60 CLOSE 

You should notice that nothing is writ- 
ten to the tape until the CLOSE state- 
ment is encountered, because the buffer 
is not yet full. Thus you must be careful 
that you never remove a tape before the 
file is CLOSEd, as all the data may not 
have been written to it. 

Inputting from the tape is similar to the 
above, except you replace OUTPUT 
with INPUT and replace PRINT with 
INPUT (or one of the other input state- 
ments— LINE INPUT/INPUTS). The fol- 

54 Bils & Bytes - December 1 9B5 




lowing segment of code demonstrates 
this: 

10OPEN "FRED" FOR INPUT AS 1 

20 INPUT #1,A$: PRINT A$ 

30 PRINT "Press a KEY ";: A$=IN- 

PUT${1 ) 

40 INPUT #1.A$: PRINT A$ 

50 PRINT "Press a KEY ";: A$=IN- 

PUT$(1) 

60 CLOSE 

You should notice that the cassette 
did not operate after the first "Press a 
KEY" prompt. This is because the cas- 
sette operating system (COS ?) always 
attempts to fill the buffer on each input 
operation. 

Successive inputs are from the buffer 
until 255 bytes are read, then another 
255 bytes are read from the tape and so 
on until the file is CLOSEd. 

These are the only 2 operations you 
can carry out on a tape file — INPUT and 
OUTPUT. Both work only on ASCII files, 
you cannot OPEN any of BINARY 
(BSAVE'd), TOKENISED (CSAVE'd), 
or SCREEN DUMP files to read from. 
But you can OPEN files which were 
saved using the SAVE command as 
these are just ASCII files. 

Device 2 — Disk Files (1: 
and 2:) 

1: and 2: refer to disk files. All the 
above CAS: information (except the last 
paragraph) is applicable here. There are 
a number of extensions, allowing 
appending data to the end of a file and 
use of random access files. 

To OPEN a file for sequential 1/0 use: 

OPEN "1 :FRED" FOR <mode> as 1 
where <mode> is one of APPEND/ 
INPUT/OUTPUT. 

File handling on disk is much different 
to cassette. Firstly when OPENing for 
INPUT a "FILE NOT FOUND" message 
will occur if the file is not on disk. The 
cassette system will just keep searching 
and probably issue a "DEVICE I/O 
ERROR" at the end of the tape. 

Secondly, when OPENing for OUT- 
PUT, if the file already exists on the disk 
it is destroyed at the time of the OPEN 
statement. The cassette system just 
starts the file at the current point of the 
tape, and several files with the same 
name can exist. 

Thirdly notice we now have an 
APPEND option. This option causes 
writes to the file to occur at the end of any 
data which already exists. You cannot 
use APPEND on a non-existent file. 

A fourth difference is that under the 



DOS you OPEN any sort of file to INPUT 
from. BINARY, TOKENISED and 
SCREEN SAVE files can all be OPENed 
for input. However they should not be 
OPENed for OUTPUT as this would 
destroy the file. 

I have been able to OPEN all file types 
for APPEND, but as PRINT always 
assumes the file is ASCII, unexpected 
results could occur doing this. 

One point to be aware of when using 
disks : ALWAYS CLOSE files before 
removing a disk. 

If disks are exchanged with a disk file 
OPEN, the effect on the new disk may be 
to corrupt the ALLOCATION TABLE 
You will get a "BAD ALLOCATION 
TABLE" message if this happens. 

When you get a BAD ALLOCATION 
TABLE, do not remove the disk from the 
drive, but type CLOSE :FILES, and if you 
are lucky, the table will be restored. 

This is not the only reason why a BAD i 
ALLOCATION TABLE occurs, however | 
at this stage the only way I know of which 
may restore the table is to type 
CLOSE:FILES immediately. 

Device 3 - ■ LPT: 



You can open the LinePrinTer for 
OUTPUT only. This is an alternative (o 
using LPRINT. You need the following 

OPEN "LPT:" FOR OUTPUT AS 1 
and then to PRINT on the lineprinter use I 

PRINT #1,var 

This works exactly as a screen print. A] 
line feed/carriage return occurs 
immediately after printing, or if a ; follows 
the PRINT, the printer position is heldfor 
the next PRINT. 

You can use PRINT USING as follows 
with the lineprinter OPEN for OUTPUT: 

PRINT #1 , USING "I \ \"; "LINE 2" 

Device 4 --CRT: 



CRT: refers to the screen in either 40 
or 80 column mode. It is the default when 
using PRINT and cannot be OPENed for j 
INPUT. AH comments for LPT: apply. 

Recently I saw a program where the] 
writer had provided facility to PRINT to j 
the screen and a separate facility to . 
PRINT the identical output to the printej 
using LPRINT. 

Effectively what this means is that the 
PRINT code is double in size. 

It is far more effective to have the 
CRT: OPEN when writing to the screen 
and the LPT: OPEN as required, then 
use a single set of PRINTs as follows: 1 



Speciravlt I 



10 OPEN "CRT:" FOR OUTPUT AS 

1 :A$="PRINTER" 

20ONKEYGOSUB50;KEY(1)ON 

30 LOCATE20,20 : PRINT "PRESS 

F1 to Toggle ";a$;" On" 

40 PRINT # 1 , "OUTPUT ON ";A$ : 

GOTO 40 

50 IF A$= "PRINTER" THEN A$= 

"SCREEN" :DVS="LPT:" 

60 ELSE A$= "PRINTER" 

DV$="CRT:" 

70 CLOSE #1 : OPEN DV$ FOR 

OUTPUT AS 1 : RETURN 30 

The only problem with is is that 
LOCATE does not work with the linep- 
rinter outputs so you need to format your 
output to avoid using LOCATE. 



Device 5 — KYBD; 

Have you ever tried to use INPUT in a 
GRAPHICS mode in SVBasic or MSX 
Basic? 

The system resets for text mode, and 
any graphics you had done are gone. 

You can get round this in SVBasic by 
using the KYBD: device, but it is NOT 
applicable to MSX. Try the following 
program 
10 SCREEN 1 

20 OPEN ■KYBD:" FOR INPUT AS 
1 

30 LINE {10.10)-(170,90).1 ,BF 
40 LOCATE 30,20 : PRINT "Enter A 
String"; 

50 INPUT #1, AS: LOCATE 
140,20: PRINT A$ 
60 CLOSE 

This OPENs the keyboard as the input 
device and so the system believes it is 
reading a file originating from the 
keyboard. 

Everything you enter will go into a file 
buffer (255 bytes) and will not be echoed 
on the screen. 

Furthermore, since input is from a file, 
an end of file character needs to be 
entered to signal the end of the input. 

The character is a 1 (CTRLVZ), or you 
press ENTER followed by any other 
character. 

Device 6 — GRP: 

SVI Basic allows you to P Rl NT text on 
a graphics screen just by using the 
PRINT command in graphics mode. 

MSX does not, you need to OPEN the 
graphics screen for OUTPUT as follows: 

10 SCREEN 2 

20 OPEN "GRP:" FOR OUTPUT AS 

1 

30LINE(10,10)-(200,70),1,BF 

40 PSET (50,40) : PRINT #1, 

"TEXT RULES" 

50 CLOSE 

A couple of problems exist. Firstly 
LOCATE has no meaning in this situa- 
tion: by default the PRINT will start at the 
pixel where the last graphics operation 
finished. Thus you need a PSET where- 



ver you would normally use a LOCATE. 

The second problem is caused by this 
need to use PSET. As it stands in the 
above program, the PSET will light up a 
pixel which we don't want lit. 

To get round this, replace the PSET 
with 

PSET (50,40),POINT{50,40) 
to prevent the pixel being lit. 

Device 7 --M DM: 

This OPENs the Modem for INPUT or 
OUTPUT. It is not really applicable in 
New Zealand as no modem is available. 
These are all the devices that can be 
used with OPEN. You can use up to 15 
files and any mixture of devices in a 
program, but don't forget to set MAX- 
FILES first. 

Be very careful to ensure that files are 
CLOSEd before removing tapes or disks 
from their respective devices. 

To finish off, it is sometimes useful to 
be able to determine from within a prog- 
ram whether a file already exists on a 
disk before OPENing it for OUTPUT. 
Here is one way of doing it. 

10 INPUT "Enter Filename ";A$ 

20 ON ERROR GOTO 500 

30 OPEN " 1 :"+A$ FOR INPUT AS 1 

: CLOSE 

40 PRINT "FILE ALREADY EXISTS 

— OVERWRITE (Y/N)" 

50 B$=CHR$(ASC(INPUT$(1)) 

AND 95) 

60IFB$<> "Y" THEN 10 

70 ON ERROR GOTO 

80 OPEN "1:"+A$ FOR OUTPUT 

AS1 

500 CLOSE : RESUME 70 

Essentially what is going on is that you 
OPEN the FILE for INPUT and if no error 
occurs, then the OPEN was successful, 
which means the file already exists, so 
you check that the user really wants to 
overwrite it. 

if not, go back to the start. 

tf the OPEN was not successful, and 
error occurs (as you are trying to OPEN 
a non-existent file for INPUT), so control 
passes to line 500 and from there 
straight back to normal processing at 
line 70. 



SPECTRAVIDEO 




"among the best 
Apple software 
available" - 
Bits and Bytes 

- Graphics Editor 
Spelling Checker 
- Twister Plot Story Teller- and 

more (for 64K Apple). See reviews 
in August and September issues 
of Bits and Bytes. Get an 

order form from your Apple dealer 
or write to Box 6186, Dunedin. 

otakou software 



THE MSX PERSONAL 
COMPUTER THAT STANDS 
ABOVE THE CROWDS 




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computer lhai has it oil — and a! a price that will 
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* RS232 serial port 

* Centronics printer Interface 

* Softwore: Memo Writer, Spreadsheef. filing 
System. Personal Scheduler 

The inciedi bfe Specirovrdea Xpress stands above 
Ihe crowd Whots more if you want your X'press to 
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CHRtSTCHURCH 5. PH (03) 596-074. 



Bits & Bytes - December 1 985 55 



THE ULTIMATE 
EXPANSION 




Computex is a whole new 
dimension for your computer. 

By phone from anywhere in Few Zealand your 
computer can harness the power of our mainframe 
Whats more communication is two way. Computex 
is an extremely powerful service and we have 
termed it the ultimate expansion. 
650 frames (screens) are available now and many 
more are "being added constantly. Somthing new 
every day. 



What does it cost? 

Initial registration is $99.00 with an annual 
subscription payable after one year of use. 
From anywhere in New Zealand phone charges are 
8 cents per minute, there are no extra charges. 
The mainframe computer operators will charge you 
17 cents per minute of access between 7am & 7pm 
on weekdays and 10 cents outside those times. With 
the exception of some of the better downloadable 
software all Computex information and services are 
free. 





Efc-ECTPiDniC 




Yes! 

lam 
interested 
in adding the ^ 
ultimate expansion ^^ 
to my computer. ^^^ 

Please rash, me < 

a no -obligation registration pack 

NAME 



ADDRESS 
PHOItfE ... 



I own computer % 

Ido/don't own a modem, u it-It 'U' whirl i Is I Vt ■■ ifiphi -nl ■!■ ■ ■ Post to: ^^ 

I do/don't own communication software. If you do name the software Computex, ^. 

and If possible the name and address of the New Zealand distributor. P.O. Box 13-1 62 , ^^ 



What will you need? 

A modem. If you don't have one we have several 

options available. Information regarding what is 

available will be forwarded with your registration 

pack. Any modem with a 1200/75 baud capability 

will access Computex. 

Communications software. If you wish to download 

software from the host mainframe library. 

We have software available as well. Details in the 

registration pack. 

Computex users will have free access to the huge 

ADITEL information data base which includes a 

whole host of information including share prices, 

weather forecasts, ski reports and racing tips. 

Computex 

V \ P.O. BOX 13-162, 

X CHRISTCHURCH. 

Phone 63-830 
or 63-864 



or at least where you purchased it. 
56 Bits & Byles - December 1 985 



Chrlstchurch 



N^ 



TCC 13011 



Programmes 



Programmes 



Programmes 



SANYO MBC-550: 

Insignias 

by Richard Pierre 

This program will draw and label the 
insignias of six air forces: French, 
British. United States, German, 
Japanese, and Israeli. 

10 LOCATE I.J.OtPRtNT -■■ 
20 COLO* 1,5 

ro cls 

50 PAINT tWi 40» .6. 6- 

60 C[RCLE*«*0,40).40.0, I, ,5, 4 

70 RAJNT (90.40) .4.4 

BO CIRCLE l*0,40) , 23. O, 1, .5,7 

90 PAINT(<?0.40p ,?.7 

tOO CIRCLE(«*0,4O), 10, O t l*.5. 1 

1 [0 PfilNT (90.40) .1,1 

l£0 LOCATE ltt,4i PRINT "FRENCH AfR FORCE " 

(30 CIRCLE (^40,40* . 30,0, I , . £. 1 

140 PAINT (340.401 , 1,1 

ISO CIRCLE (240. 40>,30.0. I, .5. 7 

160 FAINT(240*40) ,7,7 

170 C IRCLE ( 240, 40), 10,0,1,. 5. 4 

ISO PAiMT (240,40) . 4.4 

t^O LOCATE L0,24|RR|NT 'ROYAL AJR FORCE ,L 

200 CIRCLE *450, 401 ,50.0. 1,,1, I 

210 PfllNTC 450.40>< 1. I 

220 LINE (370, 30) -1530,50) . I , BF 

230, LINEf373«33)-<403.43l ,7,BF 

240 LIN£tfl23, 33>-(497,43>.7.BF 

250 LrME<^T5,3B>-(405.4S>.4 i BF 

S60 LINE*323,3m-(497,42l,4.BF 

270 LINE<4S0.20)-(440.33t,7 

290 L[NEf4£0,20»-(46O i ^S) ,7 

39Q L INE 1 440. 35>-( 420, 35), 7 

300 LlNE(460,33l-(4B0.35r,7 

710 LlNE(4e0.35)-t4*0.43J»7 

330 LINE(4ZQ t 35! -4440. 43> H 7 

330 LINE*440. 4;»-<430.55J , 7 

"40 Ll«E(4bO,4->- (470,55) .7 

-350 LTNE<47o,33>- (430.47) .7 

360 LINEf430.35>-(450 + 47] .7 

370 RftI*JTi45Ci,*0>,7.7 

380 LOCATE U>.4h* PRINT "UNITED STATES AIR FORCE" 

390 LlWE^eO, I05» - ( 100* 150) .0, BF 

400 LIWEi'45.122k-(133 t l32).0 t »F 

4JO LlHEi?'. l05l-(BO. 1223 . 7 . SF 

420 LINE (102. 103>-U00, J 22* .7,BF 

430 LInEl43,120>-<B0. 122) ,7,£F 

440 LINEdOO. I20r-(133,l22> ,7,BF 

450 LINE ( lOZ, 150»- UOO, 132) . 7,BF 

460 LIME (77, ISO) -[80, I32>.7.BF 

470 LlNE<45, l32)-<80, 130>.7,BF 

4 BO L.1NE(133.130>-U00.132) . 7.BF 

490 LOCATE 2l.5lFRJNT "GERMAN AJR FQRCE" 

BOS CJ RCLE (250,125), 50. 0.1.. S, 7 

510 PAlhJT(230,I25k,7.7 

320 CIRCLE (230. I 251,45,0, 1,-5,4 

530 FAINT (230, 123) ,4.4 

540 LOCATE 2 I. 24 i PR INT "JAPANESE AIR fQRCE" 

550 CIRCLE (450. J 25). 50.0, I,* 5, 7 

360 PAINT (430, 125) ,7,7 

370 L1NE1420, 1 IS) - (400. I 13J , J 

390 LINE4420. Il5]-£430.l43t. I 

390 LINE (450, 145) - (4B0, 115k, I 

600 PAINT (430. |25) .1,1 

610 LINE 4450, 105) -£420. 135>.l 

620 LlNE(450, 105)- (4B0, 135> » 1 

6T0 L3NE1420, I33)-(4B0. 133>. 1 

640 PAINT (430, 110). I. 1 

650 PAINT (430. t 34 k . 1, 1 

660 PAINT (470, 134* .1,1 

670 LOCATE 2 I. 49 j PR J NT 

630 GOTO 6SO 



SPECTRUM: 

Diversion 

by Paul Johnson 

This version of the well-known 'Light- 
cydes'-type game allows two people to 
play against each other. 

You must trap your opponent in the 
trail left by your cycle. 

Player 1 uses Keys 2,Q,W,A, and 
player 2 uses 0,O,P,L. 

The game features a wrap-around 
screen, so that when you move off the 
screen you reappear on the opposite 
side. 

Instructions are given in the program. 



ISRAELI Rift : ORCE- 



1 REM DIVERSIONS by Paul John 
son 

10 PAPER 0: INK 0: BORDER 0: C 
LS 

15 GO SUB 9900 

21 LET s2=0: LET sl=0 

990 BORDER 4 : PAPER : INK : C 
LS : LET x2=30: LET y2=10: LET x 
x2^1: LET yy2=0 

991 LET xx=0: LET yy=0: LET x=0 
; LET y=0: LET xl=l: LET yl=10: 
LET xxl=l: LET yyl=0 

992 PRINT #1;AT 0,0: "PLAYER 1=" 
;sl;TAB 22 ["PLAYER 2=";s2 

993 IF sl=10 OR s2=10 THEN GO 
TO 3000 

1001 LET b=IN 61438: LET a=IN 63 
486: LET c=IN 65022: LET d=IN 49 
150: LET e=IN 64510: LET f=IN 57 
342: LET g=IN 65278: LET h=IN 32 
766 

1100 IF a<>191 THEN LET yyl— 1: 
LET xxl=0 

1101 IF b<>191 THEN LET yy2=-l ; 
LET xx2=0 

1102 IF c<>191 THEN LET yyl=l : 
LET xxlO 

1103 IF d<>191 THEN LET yy2=l: 
LET xx2=0 

1104 IF e=190 THEN LET yyl=0: L 
ET xxl=— 1 

1105 IF e=189 THEN LET yyl=0: L 
ET xxl=l 

1106 IF f=169 THEN LET yy2=0: L 
ET xx2=-l 

1107 IF f=190 THEN LET yy2=0: L 
ET xx2=l 

1150 IF y2<l THEN LET y2=20 

1151 IF yl<l THEN LET yl=20 

1152 IF x2>30 THEN LET x2=l 

1153 IF xl>30 THEN LET xl=l 

1154 IF xl<l THEN LET xl=30 

1155 IF x2<l THEN LET x2=30 

1156 IF yl=21 THEN LET yl=l 
1158 IF y2=21 THEN LET y2=l 

1200 LET x=xl+xxl: LET y=yl+yyl : 
LET xx=x2+xx2: LET yy=y2+yy2 

1201 IF ATTR (y,x)=16 AND ATTR ( 
yy,xx)=8 OR ATTR <y,x)=8 AND ATT 
R (yy,xx)=L6 THEN BEEP .01,10: 
BEEP .005,14; BEEP .01.17: BEEP 
.01,10: GO TO 990 

1211 IF ATTR (y,x)=16 OR ATTR (y 
,x)=8 THEN BEEP .01,10: BEEP .0 
05. Id: BEEP .01,17: BEEP .01.10: 

LET s2=s2+l: GO TO 990 

1212 IF ATTR (yy,xx)=8 OR ATTR ( 
yy,xx)-16 THEN BEEP .01,10: BEE 
P .005,14: BEEP .01,17: BEEP .01 
,10: LET sl=sl+l: GO TO 990 
1500 LET x2=x2+xx2: LET y2=y2+yy 
2 

1510 LET xl=xl+xxl: LET yi^yl+yy 

1 

2000 PRINT AT yl.xl; PAPER lj" " 

;AT y2,x2; PAPER 2;" " 

2990 GO TO 1000 

3000 CLS : PRINT AT 10,5; INK 6; 




PROGRAfTT 

SPECIAL 



FLASH 1; PAPER 2 ; "G A M E V 
E R !" 

3001 IF Sl=10 THEN PRINT AT 15, 
5; PAPER Is "BLUE"[ INK S; PAPER 
0;" IS VICTORIOUS": GO TO 3003 

3002 PRINT AT 15,5; PAPER 2;" RE 
D"; INK 6 j PAPER 0;" IS VICTORIO 
US": GO TO 3003 

3010 PRINT AT 21,2; INK 1; PAPER 
5 ["PRESS ANY KEY TO PLAY AGAIN" 

: FOR K=0 TO 150: NEXT N 

3020 BEEP .002,RND*20: BEEP .005 

,RND*20+20: BEEP . 005 , RND*20+10 : 
BEEP .004,RND*20-10 

3030 IF INKEY$="" THEN GO TO 30 

20 

3040 GO TO 20 

9900 INK 1: PAPER 5: BORDER 2: C 

LS 

9905 RESTORE 9920 

9910 READ a$: FOR N=l TO 257: PR 
INT A$(N)j: BEEP .01,-15: NEXT N 

9911 READ a$: FOR N=l TO 256: PR 
INT A$(N)j: BEEP .008,-10: NEXT 
N 

9912 READ a$: FOR N=l TO 128: PR 
INT A$(N):: BEEP -005,-5: NEXT N 
9920 DATA " INSTRUCTIONS 

You and your opponen 
t are out for each others throa 
ts you eachnrust each defend your 
selves as best you can. You each 
leave a trail behind you whic 
h is deadlyto anybody. 

FIRST ONE TO 
10 WINS GO 

OD LUCK " 

9930 DATA " 

CONTROLS 







1-5 


= 


UP = 


6-0 

















= 


LEFT = 

















w 


= 


RIGHT = 


P 


li 








9940 


DATA " 












A-G 


= 


DOWN = 


H-enter 









PRESS ANY KEY MO 
RTALS " 

9950 FOR n=0 TO 200: NEXT n: PAU 
SE 

9990 RETURN 
9998 SAVE "DIVERSIONS" LINE 



Bits & Bytes - December 1 985 57 



Programmes 



SEGA 

A ptane 

By Dick Williams 

10 SCREEN 2,2:C0L0RI , 15, , 1 SCLS 
20 L!NEC220,20)-t215,35), 1 
30 L1NE(215,35)-(I78,;>5), I 
40 LINEC 170.75) -C 165,35), 1 
50 UNEtl65,95)-£ 160, 125), I 
60 LINEC 160, 1251-1160, 168), I 

79 LINEC 16B, !60}-[ 150, I70J. 1 

80 LINE1150, 170)-[ 130, 115), 1 
90 L1NEC13B, 1351-C 125, 115), 1 
100 LINEU25, 115)-C115, ]00), 1 
110 L INE( I 15, !00)-C I 15, 110), 1 
120 LINEC I 15, 130]- [ 125, 140). 1 
130 LINE! 125, 1401-C 130, 135), 1 
140 J.INEC 105, 140] -C 135,95,, 1 
15B LINEC 105,85)-U20,70J, 1 

169 LINEC 123, 701-1169, 501. 1 

170 LINEC220.20)-t205,2fc)J, 1 
IBB LINEC20S,2Bi-t 150,551, 1 
130 LtNEC170,?5)-t 158,80), 1 
260 L]N£[ 153,80]-! I 15. IBB). I 
210 LlNE(165,95)-( 130, 135), 1 
220 L INEC160, 1251-C 140, 1501. I 
230 LINE! 105, 1401-C 1 15, 130), I 
240 CIRCLECI20, 120), 5, 9 

260 L1NEC120, 1251-C65, 190), 3 
2>0 LINE125, 190)-n20, 1 15], 9 
280 LINEC25, 150)-tB5, 150). 9 
290 PfllNHl 10, 130) . 3 
300 POINT £ 120, I 201.9 
310 FAINTC 120, 125). 9 
320 PfilNlC 15S, 155), 4 
330 LINE! 190,301-C 195, 35j, 1 
340 LINEC L95. 35J-C210, 251. L 
350 L :NE1710,25J-C210,20j, 1 
360 LlNE[195,25)-[200, 30). 1 
370 LINE(215, 201- 1215,25: , '. 
3B0 L1NEC125, 115) -.l.-'E),,-. I, 1 

_<j0 rniNT,' :BC,-51, 1 

4B0 LINEC 1*15, Kl IBS, ■ , , 
410 LlNEC UI^,9C- I -I 30, ..■ . , 

(20 i iNEfSf. .:«■»)- :^5,t i ■ . . 

Jia l [KErg;, i ;5 ] -i lETS, 139 ■ . 

440 I. [NEC ;ifl. 1 f?T. J IB'i, ..'.' , . 

4jU l I NEC 65, 1001- [80.00 '■ 1 

■',fiH L I NEC 80, yB 1 l 1 iV . 

470 t iNe;sB,£i5;-c75, iaai.1 

4d0 LthE« 188. 35)- fl 05, 33). ; 

■ •■> ;rcle. iee, 105), 5, . 

500 I : NE I : 00, 1 00 1 - 1" 1 5 , 1 3j I , :1 
510 LJNEI I00i 1 IB1 -I 1 -"■ . ia ■ 
528 l iNEi let;, 1 Id CIS. 1901.9 
530 LlN£f 15, 1=101- ■ 15, 150], 1 

540 l INE175, 1001 ■ •■'■, tae . , 
Xa ;v. iiti.Vi, ij., '. 

"'■•'• ;nE( I05. a 5i-C 1B0, jCI. ■■ 
j/0 L !Nt . 105,33 i f ;■=;"!. .111 ,, : 

ii,.T rn;*ni n5,ssi. i 

59H P'ilNT :00, I 05 1.3 
snp pniNr. '35, : IBi.s 

sib pfttnTtaa, iiBi, a 

620 Pii;Nl ! 100, 1 35 1 ,5 

630 LINE I 195. iaej-c 1 35. 3 . 1 

640 LlNEC 215.251 - C 105. I Bill . ■! 

650 PfilMi 1 WJi 55), 4 

660 L 1NE1 60, | ?51 I 45, ; h£j , , , 

670 LINEC45, 150)-f 15. \?51,l 

6B0 LINE! 130. 13HJ : !5. lid I, 4 

630 LlNEtiea,180i-f 15, i«5J,7 

700 u 1 NE C 1 B0 , 1 00 1 - 1 1 J . '. 4 1 , 7 

718 LINEC 125, 1201-f ,'0, :-Jll), 3 

720 LINEC 125. 120!- I .-'5, 1901.3 

730 LINE! 125, 123) -[SB, 130 . 

740 Li NEC ISO, 1 lBl-i 55, 13"- . • 

73« HJR f-l TO 1 Jil0:Nt^- :Tl=: ,rin 




SPECTRAVIDEO 

Club Accounts 

By Vic Whyrnan 

This program allows a balance sheet to 
be produced, such as for a club financial 
report. It uses a Spectravideo 328 and a 
Shinwa CP-80 printer in 142-column 
mode, as set up by line 1 10. 

10 REN Balance sheet prograi 

?0 REN by Vic Vfcyian 

30 REN for the SPECTRAVIDEO 

40 'Variables: [N=incoie: EX-exoenditure: T 

V-teip variable 

SO 'Bl=extess incoie: !2=excess expenditure 

to 'The strings are sell explanatory 

70 S»=SPflCE*(39) 

?o in=o:ex=o:tv=o 

90 'Set up screen and printer output 

100 £LS:f , LAY*o4ee , :L0CATEli,5:PRINT'TURH PR 

INTER ON'lLOCATES^iPRINT'Press any key «he 

n ready ...' i : Af*l NPUT* 1 1 ) : PLAY Wab* ■ 

110 LPRINTCHRt(SrHF) 

120 as: located, a: i hput 'Or 9/ Bus i ne55 : ■ ; obi 

17C Lt!CATE2,!:INPiJT , F2r period: *;P3*:G0SUB5 

20 

140 L0CATE15,2:PRINT'BALANCE SHEET* :PRIHTST 

RING*(39,'-"1 

150 Y^lLGrj^^PRINT'Incoie" 

160 IS*=":L0CATE1, 20: INPUT" Incoie source:' 

iIS*:60SUB510;IFISf.= , 'THEH220 

170 L0CATE1,Y:PRINTISI 

1 BO L0CATE1 , 20: INPUT ' Aiounl : ' ; TV: IN= I NHV: 6 

0SUI5I0 

1 90 L0CATE30, * S PRINTUSIN6' fill . It ' J TV: r=M 

200 LPRINTIS*iTABI60l JUSING'MMI.M'i TV 

210 G0T0160 

220 L0CATE30,T:PRINT" ':LDCATE29,Y*1; 

PRINTUSINe'MIH.UMN 




.':L0CATE29,T«l: 



230 GOSUB570 

240 CLS : L0CATE1 5 j Z: PRINT 'BALAMCE SHEET* ;PRI 

NTSTRINGM39,'-') 

250 r=£:L0CATE4, 4:PRINT*Expendi ture' 

240 ESJ^'ILOCATEl, 20: INPUT 'Expenditure sou 

rce: * i ESC G0SUB510: IFES*=" "THEN320 

270 L0CATE1,Y:PRINT£S* 

230 L0MTE1 , 20: INPUT' Mount : ' ; TV :EK=EX*TV:fi 

0SUB510 

2?0 L0CATE30, Y: PRINTUSINB 'fill. II* i TV: Mf+1 

300 LPRINTTAB f 80) i ESli TAB ( 130) i USING'MIII. 

II'ITV 

310 BDT0260 

320 LOCATE30,Y:PRINT' 

PRINTUSING'UIM.II'jEX 

330 G0St!iS70 

340 CLSaOCATElS^IPRINT'Si 

HTSTRINeHS!,'-') 

350 L0CATE4 f 4:PRINT , INC0N 

NTUSINB'lllll.ll'ilN 

360 L0CATE4, 8: PRINT'EXPEHBI TORE: ■ : LOCATE30, 

8:PRINTUSIHG'«IH.I|-iEX:PRINT 

370 IFIN4EXTHENS0TO44O 

3G0 PRINTUSING'Excess incoie over expend. 

miMrjIH-EXlB^Irl-EX 
390 LPRDITaPRINTTABISOIjUSING^Eicess incoi 
e over expend. fill) 

JI'jBl 

400 LPRIHTTABISJI* "TABfiaiJ " 

410 LPRINTTAB (ftOliUSING'Sllll.tl 

fllll.M'ilNiEX^Bl 

420 LPRI-rrTASIfcir , TABI!31)' 

430 S0 T 0490 

44^! "BINTUSING'Eiicess expend, over incoie: 

$iiii,i*.';ex-in:b2=ex-in 

450 LPRINTaPRINTUSING'Excess expend, over 

incoie til 

II.H';12 

460 LPRI«TTASlfiJ)- 'TABini)' ' 

470 LPRINTTAB (60) [ USING 'tlltl. II 

*IIH.ir;IN*B2iEX 

4B0 LPRINTTABItl)' *TAB(131)' -| 

490 60SUB570 

500 CLS: PLftY*o4bad " : LPRIHTCHR* 1 19) : EN9 

510 LOCATE!), 20; PRINTS*: RETURN 

520 LPRINT0W 

530 LPRINT'Balance sheet for period *;PH I 

540 LPRINT:LPRINTTABi60) 'BALANCE SHEET'lLK 

INTTABr£0};STRIMe*t 13, "-'J 

550 LPRINTTAB 114 1 'INCDNF'; TAB 1 90 1'EXPEMiril 

RE' 

560 LPRINTTABI16J' " i TAB f 901 ■ «1 

-■:LPRINT;RETURN 

570 LOCATES, 20: PR INT Press any key.. ,'::M* 

INPUT*I1):RETUR« 



58 Bils S Byles - December 19B5 



Programri i 



ATARI: 

Maths Test 

by Stephen Botha 

This programme will help the user 
learn multiplication tables. Ten ques- 
tions are asked for each of the tables 
from to 12. 

If the user gets all the questions cor- 
rect, weird sound effects are played. 

19 RE1 *riATHS TEST*-BY STEVEN BOTHA. 

•SB CLR :DIM A«[ 20] , ?tf 56) 

100 GRAPHICS \7 POSITION 5,0;? «6 ; "rtflTHS 
TEST '! POSITION ZiW> «6;- - BY STEPHEN BQT 

Hfi" 

1B5 FOR K=0 TO BO : I" INT [RNDC 0] J255J+! =SE 

TCdLOR B,I,6:SOuND , 1 , 10, INTtRNDCfl] *1 5) 

♦I :MEXT KiFOR J-l TO 150;NEXT J 

200 POKE a?,;:6RflPHICS 

ZI0 ? -THIS PROGRsn IS DESIGNED TO TEST" 
"YOU ON MULTIPLICATION PROBLEMS, " 
"iMUOLUING NUMBERS BETWEEN AND ) 

"THESE QUESTIONS WILL BE ASKED IN 

"ORDER OF NUMBER SUE." 

"IF YOU GET AN AUSUIER INCORRECT," 

"YOU WILL HAUE TO BEGIN THAT CERTfl 

"TIMES TABLE AGAIN. (18 QUESTIONS U 
ILL BE flSKEO ON EACH TIMES TABLEI.0 TO 1 
2])Y0U WILL RECIEUE ft"! 

21 B ? " RANKING HT THE END TO SEE HOU GO 
00 YOU ARE AT rifiTHSCTHE LESS MISTAKES, T 
HE BETTER THE RANK J. '■ 

219 ? "PRESS START TO BEGIN" 

220 IF PEEKCS32?3)=6 THEN SOUND 0,0.0,0: 
SOUND 1.0.0. B: GOTO 1000 

221 SOUND 0,255, 10,4 :SOUND 1,234.10.4 
225 GOTO 22S 

1000 A.0:B-0:E»1 :J=0 

1100 ? CHMU25]:' "UHHT IS "jft," X ";B: 



211 


7 


212 


? 


2" 




213 


? 


214 


7 


ZI5 


? 


216 


7 


IN" 




217 


? 



E=E«1 

ii05 trap ii05:input r 

1108 IF C-fltB THEN ? "CORRECT" iFOR D- 1 T 
250: NEXT Q:GOTO 1 150 

M03 ? "INCORRECT. THE ANSWER TO ";A;" X 
" ,B;" IS " !A*e :?=?f 1 :E=0 

1110 ? "yOU HAD BETTER START THE " ;A;" T 
WES TABLE AGAIN. ':B=0:FOR 0=1 TO 1000 :N 
EXT 

1111 GOTO 1100 

1150 IF E C> 1 I THEN B=INTtRND[0)*12I»l ;G0 
TO ] 100 

1151 A=At[ ;B-0:E=1 =? "GOODS !" =FOR 11= 1 TO 
250:SOUND 0, M, 10, A :NEXT H:SOUND 0,0,0,0 

:IF f!<>13 THEN 1100 

2000 IF 2>30 THEN Zt^'UERY POOR" 

2001 IF JOB AND Z>=24 THEN J,= "UERY 
UNSATISFACTORY" 

2002 IF i<24 ANO 2>=2B THEN Z*=" 
UNSATISFACTORY " 

2003 IF I<20 AMD Z>=16 THEN 2t="BEL0U 
AUERAGE" 

2004 IF Z<16 ftND 2>-12 THEN £t- "RUERAGE " 

2005 IF 2C12 ANO 2>=8 THEN 2»="ABQUE 
rtUERAGE" 

2006 IF 2<B AND 2>-4 THEN ?*="UESY GOOD" 
2002 IF 2>=1 ANO 1(4 THEN 2t= "EXCELLANT" 
2008 IF Z=0 THEN 3000 

2100 ? "YOU HAU£ COMPLETED ALL OF THE 

QUESTIONS. YOUR RANKING IS ;Z*\ "." 

2101 ? "(YOU GOT "\t," QUESTIONS WRONG. 1 
":&OT0 4000 

3000 ? "YOU GOT ALL THE QUESTIONS CDRREC 
TS E £ ? " 

3001 FOR H-l TO 4B0:SOUND 0, H, 1 0, * :SOUND 
1,Ht10,I0,4;SOUNO 2.H.20 , ] 0, 4 :SDUND 3,H 

-30, 10,fl:SElCOLOR 2,H,B:NEXT H 

3002 ? "YOU ARE A flATHS GENIUS5S5E! ' 

3003 FOR U=480 TO I STEP -1:S0UND 8 , » . ! 
,4:SDUND 2, hl»20, 10,4 :SOUND 3, m 1 30, i 2 , 4 -S 
ETCOLOR 2,U,6:NEXT U 

3012 FOR S=0 TO 3:S0UND S,0,e,0:NE«T S -S 

ETCOlOR 2,a,5:&OTO 4000 

4000 ? "PRESS START TO RE-RUN," 

4010 IF PEEK (532791=6 THEN RUN 

401 ! GOTO 4910 



BBC: 

Sound Forth Com- 
mand by Usman Ali 

The Acornsoft version of the program- 
ming language FORTH lacks some 
BASIC commands. 

This set of Forth routines implements 
the SOUND command, and is an exam- 
ple of how to implement other com- 
mands. 

Screen 1 (SCR # 1 ) defines SOUND, 
and screens 2 to 5 use this to play The 
Young Prince and the Young Princess' 
from Rimsky-Korsakov's Scheherazade. 



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fmI .i 1'IEIJH ■. B'f TTfPtfUl f , 81 i'b PlICH 

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11 t-1 -■'lllm ■. ^'. i| pitch ■ ^ i-t » PUCK ' 

' . f i ii irai ' , iw in ri iu-i ' , /i ii pitch ' 

i \ df bipMLii >, f. u nan i, i« ion icm > 
v* /:. -.v > i ilm ■ 



COMMODORE 64: 

Galactic Gladiator 

by Robert Groofhuis 

In this game you are being attacked by 
a UFO and an alien fighter which you 
must try to shoot as may times as possi- 
ble. 

If the fighter hits the UFO, if the aliens 
crash, you will be awarded a bonus 
score. 



f|. *■> * V«4 .<•■ i» ■ I 



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COTOPUTEBS 
FOBPEOPlf 

W SANYO MBC 
SALES AND SUPPORT 

35 Taranaki St, Wellington 
Phone (04) 859-675 

407 Queen St, Auckland 
Phone (09) 393-408 



Bits & Bytes - December 1 985 59 



Programmes 



APPLE 



Super Plotter 

By S. Shearman 

Super Plotter is a hires drawing 
program which makes ingenious use of 
four cursors, allowing boxes and lines to 
be easily drawn. You control one cursor, 
and the other three follow it around the 
screen. Use A and Z to move up and 
down, and the left and right arrows to 
move left and right. SPACE toggles 
between Plot (where a line is left by the 
cursor) and Move (where no line is left). 
RETURN shifts the slave cursors to the 
main cursor's position. 

Other commands are shown on a 
menu at the bottom of the screen. 
Pictures are saved to disk as standard 
34-sector files, and can be loaded from 
within another program with: 
HGR 

PRINT CHR$(4);"BL0AD v pic name v 
,A$2000" 

i,i 5CALE= 1 : RDT- 

1 MH* - " MOVE-" 

2 MO = 9s D* = CHR* (131 + CHR» 

14) 
j X = lO0:V = SO! XL = X * 5:VL «■ 
V - 5 

4 OX a X:OY - V 

5 CC = 3 

JO FDR I = T 6B fO 7S7: READ D: POKE 
I.D: NEXT 

ii piiE 232,0! pr*e 233.3 

15 (EXT : HOME 

20 '.TAB 3: INVERSE ! HTAB 3: PRINT 

■■SUPER PLOT" 
» V1AB 10: PRINT "CLEAR HI-RES 

SCREEN ?": : GET A* 
.-1 NORMAL 
40 IF M = '■¥" THEN HGR ! GOTO 

45 IF A* . "N" THEN GOTO 15 

5'.' GUSUB 5000 

55 GOSUB 2500 

60 HOME : VTAB 21s PRINT "1=C0LG 

UR 2^CLEAR SCREEN i:=SAV£/L 

UriD" 
■'.i PRINt "4=S0UARE 5=FILl SPIJA 

RE ^STEPPING" 
BO PRINT " ' =P [AGONAL 9=FULL SCRE 

EM <?«QUIJ" 
90 INVERSE : HTAB ~: PRINT MM*:: 
NORMAL : PRINT " X=":Xi" Y= 

■■ ! V: ; VTAfi 1 : GET AA* 
I'""' I - PEE! < - 16336) 
110 JP AA* - "A" THEN GOSUB 200 

120 IT AA* = "2" THEN GOSUB 205 

i t 
130 IF AA* - IHR» tB> THEN 6QSUB 

2 1 Ot i 
1 40 1 1 AA* « CHR* < 2 1 > THEM GOSUB 

2150 
J SO IF AA* = " " THEN GOSUB 240 


16' .i IF AA* = CHR* 13) THEN 60SUB 

:'6i"".' 

I '•' ftfi -- VOL .'.,.'*> 

*Su If fV" ! nJJ AA ,J mru nnrn 

1<7U ON AA SUSUB 1 1000, I 200O. 130O 

O, 14000. 15000, liiiou. 170'.'O, IE) 

000, woo 
K'OO GOTO t." 
2000 GQ9U6 2500: V = V - MO; IF \l 

THEM V = o 
2O05 IF MM* » "-MOVE- " THEN GOSUB 

2500; RETURN 
2010 GOSUB 220O: RETURN 



2050 GOSUB 2S00tV - \ + MO: IT- V 

■ 191 THEN Y » 191 
2'"'5S If MM* - " MOVE-" THEN GOSUP 

2500: RETURN 
2O60 GOSUB 2200: RETURN 
2100 GOSUB 2500: X - It - MO: IF X 

'. O THEM X = O 
2105. IF MM* •> "(MOVE':" THEM GOSUB 

2500: RETURN 
21 lO GOSUB 2200: RETURN 
2150 GOSUB 2500: X = X + MO: IF X 

279 THEN X = 279 
2155 IF MM* - " MOVE ■" THEN GOSUB 

2500: RETURN 
2160 GOSUB 2200: RETURN 
22'">0 HPLOI X,Y TO OX.DV: GOSUF 2 

500: RETURN 
2300 HCOLQR= CC: RETURN 
2400 IF MM* » "'PLOT >" THEM MM* - 

"'HOWE ": RETURN 
2410 MM* - ":PLOT;" 
2420 RETURN 
-:5'."'J OX a X:OY « Y: VORAH 1 AT X. 

Y: XDRAW 2 AT XL.V: XDRAW 2 Al 

XL,YL: XDRAW 2 A! X . VL 
25 1 RETURN 
2600 GOSLIB 2500: XL = X ! YL - Y: GOSUB 

250O 
2610 RETURN 
2800 HOME : VTA8 21: PRINT "0/4= 

BLACK 1=GREEN 2=BLUE 3/7=WH£ 

TE": PRINT "5=? 6=7 INPUT COL 

OUR "i: GET SS*:SS - UAL (S 

S*>: IF SS 7 THEN GOTO 2S 

00 
2B10 RETURM 
4600 END 
50'JO POKE - 16304,0: POKE - 16 

297,0: POKE - 16300,0: RETURN 

II "00 GOSUB 2800s CC = SS 
11010 GOSUB 2300: RETURN 
12000 GGSIJB 2800: HOME : VTAB 22 

: PRINT "ARE YOU SURE ?"i: GET 

A* 
12O10 IF A* > "Y" THEN RETURN 

12020 HC0L0R= SS: HPLOT 0,0: CALL 

62454: HCOLOR= CC: GOSUB 250 

6-1 RETURN 
1 300'-' HOME : VTA8 21 1 PRINT " I=S 

AVE 2=LOAD 3=CATALGG 4=sRETUR 

N" 
I30IO VTAB 1: GET Z* 
13020 IF ?* = "1" THEN V1AB 22: 
R05I.IB 25r"i : I MP) 1 1 "NAME: "i 

I 1*: PftlNI a iRV i'4 > : ''oan't 

"iF!*i ",A*2000.L*IFFF ": GOSUB 

2500 
13030 IF 7* = "I 1 " THEN VTAB 22: 
INPUT "NAME: "!FIt: PR I N I D 

*! "BLGAl>":FI*; ", A*20O0": GOSUB 

2SO0 
i;"'l'.> IF 7* - "3" THEN TEXT : HOME 

: PRIMr D*: "CATALOG": I NPU r 

"HIT RETURWIFI*; GOSUB 5000 

1505" IF „'* = '■A* THFN RETURM 
1 506O GOTO 1300m 
14000 GOSUB 2500 

14oio HPtOT v ,y to x,Yi_ rn xl.yl 

TO XI. Y IU *, »■! BOSUB 2500: 

RETURN 
1 5' "'JO GOSUB 25fi" 
U."l" d »' t: tt f. - »,L THEN J - 

1 
r.."2'i FOR 1 = I ID «L GTEF J 

j 50 so hpi-OI i,v ro i , Y^. 

|S».,i4.l ME XI : GOSUB 25'.".': RETURN 



tBC'i'".' IF PR m I THEN P0^ E 16 

.-• 2,o : pp - 2: ^C7L":i 
IG'.'l.-PP = I: POKE - 16301,0: REIUPI 

1900V TEXT : HOME : END 
An.,,"" DATA 2,0,6.0, 12, 0,56, 'O 

. I 74, tOJ ,6O,0,7, 193,22 3 13,4, 

i 1 ?:., /.o 

60001 DATA O 

4PR* 

SPECTRUM 



Easy Draw 



By Peter Ward 

This is a simple picture-drawind 
program. You move the cursor using 
keys Y,G,J,N for horizontal and vertica 
and T,U,B,M for diagonals, Press V 
clear the screen, H to draw a circle, Lj 
load a picture previously stored on tap 
and S to save a picture to tape. Pressinj 
keys to 7 changes the colour to th 
marked on the key, 

10 LET c = 0: LET x = 125: LET yl 
00 

20 PLOT INK c;x,y 
30 LET x=x+(INKEY$-"j" AND 
50)-(INKEY$="e" AND x>0) 

40 LET y = y+( INKEY$ = "y" AND yj 
75)-(INKEY$="n" AND y>0) 

50 IF INKEY$ = "u" THEN LET x> 
♦1: LET y-y+L 

55 IF INKEY$="1" 
1000 

60 IF INKEY$="h' 
500 

65 IF INKEY$="s' 
2000 

70 IF INKEY$="m" 
*li LET y=y-l 

80 IF INKEY$="b" 
-1: LET y=y-l 

90 IF INKEY$="t' 
-1: LET y=y+l 
100 IF INKEY$="v" 
110 IF CODE INKEY$>=46 AND 
INKEY$<=55 THEN LET c=CODE 
EY$-48 
120 IF c>7 OR c<0 THEN LET 
130 GO TO 20 
500 INPUT "Radius;";r 
510 CIRCLE INK c;x,y,r 
520 RETURN 
1000 PRINT "Loading": LOAD ""S 
EEN$ 

1010 RETURN 

2000 INPUT "What Name?";a$ 
2010 SAVE a$SCREEN$ 
2020 RETURN 



THEN GO SO 
THEN GO SU 
THEN GO SU 



THEN LET 



THEN LET 



THEN LET 



THEN CLS 



t*>' 



HITNt : "tftB 221 PRINI "IMP 
U [ SttPt'IHG I'lSfANf-E e "Si Ijfcl 
MU* 
J»fiJU l-lll - "AT U'iri*i : IF MO = [HEN 

SOTO laO'X' 
!."..■" HF1URM 
■'■■■.' GOSUB ^TiOO; Ml 1.01 X.< TU > 
L , .'[-t GOKUI.i 2S0t>: RETURN 




60 Bits & Bytes - December 1 985 



Programmes 



BBC 



Snake 

By C. Fawcett 

This is a fast machine code game for a 
tape-based BBC. although it could be 
converted to disk with a downloaded 
There are three programs to type in. 
Snake sets PAGE to &2000 and CHAINs 
Snaketitle which loads the code, 
Snake-S, 

First, you should type in the two-line 
Snake program (listing 1) and SAVE it, 
then type in Snaketitle (listing 2) and 
SAVE it alter Snake. Then set PAGE to 
&2000, and type in Snake-S (listing 3), 
and SAVE it in a different place from the 
previous two programs. Now RUN it and 
type *SAVE"SNAKE-M" E00 +800 to 
SAVE it after Snaketitle. 

When you want to load and play 
Snake, type CH, "Snake". Instructions 
will appear on the screen while the 
machine code is loading. 



10 MODE? 

20 PAGE-b2000:CHAlN'Snaket I " 



ID MQDE7:VDU3I, 12, O, 137, 12?, 141 : PRINT 
"Snake f -CHR«136 

20 VDU136, 31, 12, 1, 137, 129, MISPRINT'S 
nake 1 "CHR*15a 

30 PRINT CHR*1 32" Tne Idea o* thl* gam 
• II to guide your ■■ r.HR«132 - hungry snake 

•round to eat all the" CHR»13Z"deL fctou 
*-CHR*136-blu*"CKR»137-hamburger*. ■ ■ 
10 i>12 

50 PRINTCHR«130SPC<ii) "The keys are :- 
■ 'CHR«130SPClxl "2 _ lef t* 'CHRS130SPC (xT 
X _ right" 'CHRS130SPC Ix) "/ _ datin' ,, CHR*l 
30SPC IxJ " : _ up* 

£0 PRINT 1 CHR» 133 -Avoid the bomb* erou 
rid the board ■■ ■ ■ CHR*134*Each tin* you a 
at all f and , " * CHH*1 34 ■ you go up a stag* 
which increases- 'CHR*134"the rat* of gro 
nth of the ■ nake"CHR*134-*nd the amount 
of bombi and hamburger*,* 
70 VDU2B,0,24,39, 19, 12 
SO *L. 

90 VDU137, 136, 129:PRINT" Hit {SPACE 
BAR> to continue," 
100 V0U23, 128, 24,60, 126, 253,235,0,233, 
235 

110 UDU23, 129,0, 12, I*, 16, 40, 126, 126,60 

.3 

120 REPEATUNTILGET-32 
ISO CALLbEOO 



20 REM Copyright C.Fawcett I19S4) 
30 REM Make mure PAGE-b2D0o before at 
anting 

40 REM Dont type \ and REM statement* 
so M0DE7-,cQde-fc0E0a:data-Eade+h40o: x- 

data«b400:y = xifclG0:w=LFFEE:o*«6<FFF4 
60 FORp = 0TO25TEP2:PT.= I cade; EOPTp 
63 ^Initialize game, 4 live*, stage 1 
70 . rgame:LDAaa4:STAb74:STAbBQ; LDAS01 

;STAb73:STAbBl :LDAB00:STAb72:STAb73 
30 LDAB100: STAttSE: LDAH 1 : STBbSD 
S3 \Main game 1 ooo 
90 .start; JSRrestart : JSRgame : LDAb?4 ! B 

NEstar t : JBRaga I n : JMPrgame 

95 \Set data -for snake going left 
100 . restart: LDAMbFF: STAb76 : LDABiOO : 5T 

Ab77; LDAKbl 3:STAb78: ITJAHLio: STAb79 

103 v5et start and end of snake data 
110 LDA«bOO:STAb7i:LOAIIt<02:STAb70;LDA* 

b!4; ST A* :LDA*l,13:STAxH : LOAIIblo: STAy : STA 

y*ki UrXeO 

115 \Set up Screen 



120 . !4:LDAdata.X! INx: CmP»bFe: bebi l ; J5 
«» : J MP 1 4 

123 YDraw Snake 

130 . I ) ;LDA«blF: JSRh:LDAx: JSRhjLBAv : JS 

Rh:ldaa|c2a: jsrh 

140 LDAaklF: TSRhI LDAii 1 : JSRw: LDAy • I ITS 
Rh : LDAhb2A: *SHh : LDAlr72 : CMPli 75: BM 1 s k i p : ST 
A 1,73 

143 \Draw bombs and hamburgers 
1 30 . «k I p ; LDAH 1 28 : STA1.89 : LDXH1 : JSRp 1 ot 
: LDAH 1 29 : STAS.B9 ; LDXB2 1 J SRp 1 ot 

160 LDAHki i: jsr»:ldah3:tsrh:rts 

163 SMaln game loop 

170 , game: JSRde I ay: LDAHO : STAb7B : STAb'C 
! STA8.7D: STAb7E;LDA*bei 

175 \Read key 

1 SO . 1 : LDY#b9E : LDX»l«i9E : ISRd* : CPXWbFF : B 
NEr:LDAH«iFF:STAfc76:STAb7D 

190 . r : LDYKbBD : L DXHt.BE : JSRss : CPXIlbFF ; B 
NEd : LDAHbO 1 : STAS.76 : STAb7E 

200 . d:LDY»bB7:LDXtltcB7: JSRD»:CPX»tbFF:B 
MEu I LDA4H.FF: STA177: STAb7C 



210 . u:LDYtlb97:LDXIIb97: JSRos: CPXIlbFF: B 
NEn : LDAhbOl : STAS;77:STA«t7B 

213 \Both down and up keys pressed ^ 

220 . n:LDAt7B:aRAir7C:BEQn2:LDAK0:STAtk7 
6: BE0n3 

223 \Both left and right keys pressed 

230 . n2:LDAb7D:0RAb7E:BEan3:LDAB0:STAb 
77 

233 \ update head posit Ion 

240 . n3 : CLC : LDAb76 : ADCb7B : STAb7B ! CLC i L 
DAfc77:ADCt<79:STAb79 

243 \Off icrnn 

230 LDAb7a:CMP*l ! BMIe: CMPe39: BPLe: LDAb 

79:CMP*2:BMIe:CMP«30:BPLe:BMIn4 
233 \If *o write message 
260 .e:DECti74ILDAH0: JSRm:RTS 
265 lUrite space at Snake* tall 
270 . pi4:lda»i,if: jsr»: l dk-,71 : ldax, >:: jsr 

MJUOFty, X: JSRw:LDA«b20: JSRw 

273 \Read character at Snakes head 
2S0 LDAflHF: JSRw:LDAi7B: JSRw:LDAi79: JS 

R»:LDAB(.a7: JSRo* 

ZB5 ill food lengthen tall, If no food 

left next stage 

290 CPX*!2B:BNEtI :ldal73:asla:asla:sta 

bBA:LDAb71 :SEc:SBCban:STAb71:DECIi7A: BNEt 

1 

300 INC«<73:LDAe3: JSRm:RTS 

305 \Collide Mith rest of snake 

310 .tl :CPX*42:BNEt2:DEC«i74:LBAei : 3 SRm 

:rts 

315 'Strike a bomb 

320 .t2!CPXlll29:BNEl3:DECt<74:LuA»2: 3SR 
mlRTS 

325 \No collision so write Snakes head 

330 ,t3:LDAa42: JSRm 

335 vstore new position 

340 LDXb70:LDA1.7B: STAx , X: L.DAt<7">! STAy , X 
: 1NCL71 : INCt<70 

345 *write score* 

330 LDAIIfcIF: 3SRh:lDH*3: JSRhJLDAIIO; TSRu 

360 LDA1i70:SEC:SBC'<7 1 : STAfcSA^DAUbFFlS 
EC : SBCfcSA; CMPbSA: BPLnS: LDAbSA 

37a . nS:&!Mi77\ JSRdeciLDAlll<lF:3SHw:LDA 
1115: JSRn:LDAeO: JSP~:LDAb74: JSPadec 

3Ba LDAeblF: JSRw:LDA*21 : JSR«:l,DA»o: JSR 

w: lda(,7a: jSRdec 

390 LDAftblF: JSRw:lDAK31 I JSRu.1 LDAtIO: JSR 
w: u DAL73 : JSRsdec : JMPgame 

40o .againftDXeO 

40S \Ask if to play again 

4 10 .111 :LDAdata»L100,x:CMPtll.FE;BEHI 13 
: INX: JERrp: JMP! I 1 

415 iFini best length 

420 . 1 13;LDAlr73:CMP«.72:BPl_wr:LDAl<72: .H 
r : JSRdec; 

430 . k: *SRLFFEO:BCSb;CMPHS9: BEHve: CKPIt 
78: BNEk: BESb 

410 ,ye;RTS 

443 \Stou 

450 ,b:BRK:EQUB233:EBUS CHR«Z2'CHRS7: B 
RK 

453 \Purge keyboard Buffer 

460 . space:i_DAK I5:l-XHI ILDTttO: JSRos 

463 VUait for space bar 

470 .wait! JSRbFFEO: BCSes: CMPH32: BNEwal 
l:RTS 

480 . e*l BRX:EauBbFF:E8US"Game broken-: 



485 V Generate a random number 

490 . ran : SEC : LDA«>8 1 : ADC1.84 : ADCbBa : STAI, 

8o:ldx«4 

500 . is:ldai,90,x:staii81 , x:dex: bpli8;rt 

s 

510 .plot : LDAHM 1 : JSRx! TXA! JSRh: LDAI.73 
: ASLA : ASL A ; STAlcBA ; STAI.7A 

315 VFind a random number Hi thin scree 
n coordinate* 

320 . 16: JSRran:CMP»0:BEei6:CHP(l3B!BPLl 
6:STA«.87 

S38 . 17: ]SRran:CMP»2:BMI17:CMP«29:BPLl 
7:STA«.8B 

340 JSRchar : CPXab20 1 BNE I 6 : LDAb89 ! J SRh i 
L DAH8 : JSRw : DECbBA : BME 1 6 : RTS 

345 \Read character on screen 

330 , C her : L DAHb 1 F : JSRh : LDAbS7 1 JSRw 1 LDA 
hSB: ' SRh : UDAe 1,87: JSRos: RTS 

333 \Wrlte message A to screen 

360 . m: ASLA: ASLA: ASLA: ASLA: ASLA: TAX! LD 
Att&lF: JSRw: LDAHB : JSRh: LDAW13: JSRh 

570 . 1 10:l.DAdataft300, X:CMPk(,0D: BEBem: 
JSRh: inx: ENE1 10 

580 . em;LPXHI.BO:LDAllslF: J SRh 1 LOAMS 1 JSR 
H1LBAH31 : JSRh 

390 .112: LDAd ataf k300 , X : J SRw : I NX : CKPtlt 
D:BNE112: JSR*pac*:RT5 

595 NEelay relative to stage 

600 . de 1 ay : LDAMtiS : SBCb73 : ASLA : ASLA : ASL 

a:asla:tax 

610 .il ILDVtttiFF: . yl : HEY: BNEy 1 : DEX: BNEx 

I :rts 

615 \convert binary to decimal 

620 .dec:LDX«2:STXb9F 

630 t kx:LDy»b30 

640 .ky:CMPb8C,X:BCCki: INY:SBCbBC, x:bc 
Sky 

630 . ki:CPYm,30:BNEkH:CPXI<aF:BNEkH:LBY 
<t(i20:DECbaF 

660 . kw:PHA:TYA: JSRw:PLA: DEX: BNEkx:ADC 
at30: JSRH1RTS 

670 .sdec:ADCeb30: jsruirts: ):next 

673 REm error messages 

SSO *ldatafb300l ""Vou went off the Mr 
een. * 

690 c I dataf b320! =*You went nver your * 
nake. * 

700 «(datatb310)-"YBU struck a bomb. - 

710 *(data+b360l -"You finished that lo 
t . ■ 

720 *idata*l,380l = -Press space bar to m 
tart agai r> . - 

730 RESTORE: FORmemnOTOl : poke'da t a*mem* 
(.100: inf o*=- -: REPEAT: READ info 

740 IFlnfoObFF 7pQke= t nf ol pske-pokef 1 
ELSE READi nf o*:*poke>^ infos: poke=pokefLE 
Nlnf o« 

750 UNTILinf OS"" -^poke^bFE 

760 NEXT:CALLcode: STOP 

770 DATA22, 1, 19, 1,5,0, 0,0 

7B0 DATA12, 17,2, 30,1<FF, "sue Unci 
food stage 

790 BATA18.0, 1 

BOO DATA2S.1, 16,0,18, 

610 DATA25.3,240,4,46,0,23,5,240,4, 192 
,3 

820 0ATA2S, 3, 16, 0, 192, 3, 23, 5. I 6, 0, IB, O 

830 DATA23, 1 , , 0. , 0, , O, , , IFF . ■ " 

BIO DATA12, 17,3, 31 . 2.3,fcFF, -You don't 
seem to enjoy eating " 

350 0ATA13, lO, 17, I.bFF. " blue -.17,3, 
bFF , -hamburgers '" 

B60 PATAIO, 10, 10, 10, 13, bFF, " Your bffs 
t I ength was ",17,1 

B70 DATA 10, 10, 10, 10, 13, 17, 1, bFF, - PI a 
■j again ■>• . 31 , 23, lo, IFF, -- 




Bits & Byies - December 1 985 61 



Programmes 



APPLE 



Triangle Solver 

By Joseph Albahari 

This program computes the sides and 
angles of a triangle from information 
given by the user. Enter the available 
information in the order a.b.c separating 
each by a comma. Enter unknown sides 
and angles as a zero. 

The user should enter only three 
numbers, as that is all that is necessary 
to solve the triangle if it is solvable. 
When first trying the program, leave out 
line 1 to make detection of typing errors 
easier. 

IB (KERR SOTO 788 

15 REM 

17 RBI TRIMBLE SOLVER 

28 REM BY JOSEPH ALBAHWI 

22 REM 

25 REM 

30 HOC 

35 GOSUS 1800: REN DRAW TRIfiNGL 

E 

36 VTAB 1 

48 = 57.29578: REM RADIANS TO 

DEGREES 
45 PRINT 'ANGLES: A,B,C *; 
58 INPUT A,B,C 
55 PRINT "SIDES: A,B,C "j 
68 INPUT A1,B1,C1 
7B IF A + B + C = 8 THEN 380 
88 IFA*B = BDRB + C = BOR 

A + C = THEN 4B0 
98 REM TWO ANGLES & ONE SIDE KN 

OWN 
188 Y = 188 - (A + E + CJ 

181 IF A2 = 8 THEN 118 

182 IF Al > B THEN fil = 8: SOTO 
118 

183 Bl = 8 

110 IF A = 8 THEN A = Y 
128 IF B = 8 THEN B = Y 
130 IF C = 8 THEN C = Y 
148 IF Al > 8 THEN GOSUB 208: SOTO 

•urn 
158 IF Bl > 8 THEN 60SUB 178: SOTO 

5880 
168 IF CI > 8 THEN GOSUB 230: EOTO 

5800 
170 Al = Bl * SIN (A / Q) / SIN 

(B / 0) 
188 IF 1 = 1 Tr€N I = 8: RETURN 

198 I = 1 

288 CI = Al i SIN (C / 0) / SIN 



(A / Q) 
210 IF 7 = 1 THEN Z 



8: RETURN 



220 Z = 1 

238 Bl = CI * SIN (B / 0) / SIN 

(C / Bl 
24B IF Z = 1 THEN 7. = 8: RETURN 

250 Z = 1: GOTO 178 

388 REM KNOW ALL SIDES BUT NO A 

NGLES 
305 DEF FN R(X> = ATN ( SQR II 

- I * X) / X) 
318 X = (Bl A 2 + CI * 2 - Al * 2 

) / (2 » Bl » Cl> 
315 IF X = I TIEN A = 90: SOTO 3 

38 
317 IF X < 8 THEN A = 1B8 - t FN 

R( -X)) * B: SOTO 338 
328 A = FN RfX) « 9 
338 X = (CI A 2 ♦ Al A 2 - Bl " 2 

) / (2 # CI * Al) 
335 IF X = 8 THEN B = 98: GOTO 3 

58 
337 IF X < 8 THEN B = 188 - < FN 

R( - X)) t S: GOTO 350 
348 B= FNR(X) « Q 
35B X = (Al " 2 + Bl * 2 - CI A 2 

) / (2 * Al * Bl) 
355 IF X = 8 THEN C = 90: GOTO 3 

70 
357 IFX<0THENC = 180-(FN 

Rl - XI) * Q: GOTD 370 
360 C = FN R(X) • 
370 GOTO 5088: RE?. DONE 
488 REM ONE ANGLE & TWO SIDES K 

NOUN 
405 IF A > B ThEN 1=1: IF Al > 

8 THEN 508: REM OPPOSITE SI 

DE KNOWN 
41B IF B > 8 TIEN 1 = 2: IF Bl > 

8 Tr€N 508 
428 IF C > THEN I = 3: IF CI > 

8 TIEN 588 
438 ON I GOTO 448,458,468 
435 REM USE COSINE RULE TO FIND 

THE THIRD SIDE 
440 Al = SQR (Bl A 2 ♦ CI A 2 - 

2 * Bl * CI t COS (A / B)>: 
GOTO 388: REM ALL THREE SI 

DES ARE NOW KNOWN, SO FIND A 

NGLES 
450 Bl = SQR (CI A 2 + Al A 2 - 

2 » CI * Al * COS (B / 0)): 



GOTO 388 
460 CI = S8R (Al A 2 + Bl A 2 - 
2 * Al * Bl * COS (C / 0)): 

GOTD 308 
580 DEF FN S(O) = (90 - 1 ATN ( 

SQR (1 - * 0) / O) t BM / 
B 
585 A2 = 1 

518 ON I GOTO 515,535,555 
515 IF Bl > THEN 528 

517 T = CI * SIN (A / Q) / Al 

518 C = FN SIT) * Q: GOTO 100 
520 T = Bl * SIN (A / Q) / Al 
538 B = FN SIT) I Q: GOTO 108 
535 IF CI > B THEN 540 

537 T = Al * SIN (B / 0) / Bl 

538 A = FN S£T) < 6: GOTO 108 
548 T = CI * SIN IB / 0) / Bl 
558 C = FN S(T) * 0: GOTO 180 
555 IF Al > 6 THEN 568 

557 T = Bl * SIN (C / 0) / CI 

558 B = FN SIT) * Q: GOTO 108 
560 T = Al * SIN (C / Q) / CI 
578 A = FN SIT) t Q; GOTO 100 
788 PRINT : PRINT ■ NO SUCH TBI 

ANGLE, RE-ENTER": VTAB 1: GOTO 

48 
1B08 VTAB 14 

1005 PRINT " A" 
1810 PRINT ' A' 
1828 PRINT " / \' 
1830 PRINT " / V 
1848 PRINT ' c/ \b" 
1850 PRINT ' / V 
I860 PRINT " / \ 



1065 PRINT 



/ 



\ 



1870 PRINT " B 

C" 
1880 PRINT ■ i ■ 
2800 RETURN 
5000 REM ROUND FIGURES TO 4.D.P 

.AND PRINT OUT ANGLES AND SI 

DES 

5081 HOME : GOSUB 1888: VTAB h REN 
DRAW TRIANGLE 

5082 A = INT (A f 18003) / 18000 
:B = INT IB * 18808) / 1000 
0:C = INT (C * 18808) / IN 
00 

5003 Al = INT (Al ■ 10800) / 180 
80:B1 = INT (Bl i 18000) / 
10800: CI = INT (CI * 



62 Bits & Bytes- December 1985 



Programmes 



/ mm 

5005 PRINT "WGLES ARE:': PRINT 
5010 PRINT "fi= 'A;" B= *B{" O 

*C 
502B PRINT : PRINT 
5638 PRINT "SIDES ARE:" 
504B PRINT 
5050 PRINT "A* "Al;" B= *B1;* 

C= 'CI 
5088 PRINT : BET At: IF ASC (AS 

> = 27 T>€N END 
5090 BOTD 30 



MICROG€€ 



Centipede 

By Robert Douglas 

This is a two-player game in which 
each player must try to force the 
opponent's centipede into a wall or a 
centipede tail. Full instructions are 
included in the program. 

Lines 580 and 590 POKE a short 
routine into place which checks if a 
specified key has been pressed. This is 
used by the command USR( 15000,") 
in lines 260 to 330. 

This program, along with a single 
player version and another game, is 
available on cassette for $12 from: 
Robert Douglas, 22 Arawhata St, 



COMMODORE 128 HERE NOW 




ONLY — —'—-—— - 

$995 

* 128 K RAM Advanced BASIC 

* Fully C64 compatible 

* CP/M 




BE QUICK — first shipment 
already sold out 

CALL 

SUPATECH ELECTRONICS 

430 MT EDEN ROAD PHONE 605-216 Lale nights: Thursday & Friday 

OPEN ALL DAY SATURDAY 



Porirua. 

00100 CLSiSOSUB 580 1 POKE 257,2 

00110 DIH XC1>,Y(1),D<1>,U<1,4> 

00130 CL5:OJRS 20,4: INVERSE: PRINT C E N 

T I P E D E "; NORMAL: CURS 40. 3 1 PRINT* Two 

Player Venial' 

00130 PRINT "Do you want instructions? <Y or 

H>" 

00140 IF USRC 15000, 23) TIEN 490 ELSE IF USR< 
15000, 14) THEN 150 ELSE 140 
00130 Al*=KEY»iCURS 1,8: PRINT ■Seed Factor < 
to 9>?-\- Fa»l Sloy- 

00160 Al«=KEY*iIF Alts" TtEN ISO ELSE LET S 
-INT<VA1_CAI*>)|IF S<0 OR S>9 THEN 160 ELSE C 
LS 

00170 E— liF— 1 
OOIBO CURS 20IPKINT -C E N T I P E D E'lCURS 

OS LORES I PLOT 0,0 TO 0,44 TO 127,44 TO 127,0 

TO 0,0 
00190 1(01=1: Y (03=23: D£0)=2: X U >=126:Y( 1 )=23 
lDCl)-4:SET XC0),YC0)iS£TX<l»,YU) 
00200 FOR 1=0 TO llfM DCI) GOTO 210,220,230, 
240 

00210 YU)-YCI)*1:BQTQ 250 
00220 XCI)*Xm*li60T0 250 
00230 YCI)=YCI)-l:SOTO 250 
00240 XCI)-XU)-1 

00250 IF P0INT(»<I),Y<I>) THEN NEXTt I 330 E 
LSE SET <XCI),YCI))iNEXT I 
00260 FOR J-0 TO Bl IF USRC 13000, 26) THEN LET 

D<0)=3 
0O270 IF USRC 15000, 47) THEN LET ull>«3 
00280 IF U5R<150O0,0) THEN LET D<1>=2 
00290 IF USRC15000, 19) THEN LET D(0)=2 
00300 [f USRC15000,23) THEN LET DC0>-1 
00310 IF USRC 15000, 27) THEN LET D<1)-1 
00320 IT USRC13000.43) THEN LET DCD-4 
00330 IF USRC1S0OO,!) TTEN LET DC0>=4 
00340 NEXT J: SOTO 200 

00330 A1MKEY»iPRINTiPLAY 7; 5; 4(3; 7: PRINT'S 
T P'iPLAY O.ISiIF I-I THEN LET F=F*l!HC0,F 

)=-! ELSE LET E=E+l:HCl»E)=-l 

00360 CLS:CURS28,3:PRINT"H U S I L E":PLOT 4 

1,36 TO 41,12 TO 90,12 TD 90,36 TO 41,36iPLD 

T 41,32 TO 90,32; PLOT 64,36 TO 64,12:PLDT 63 

,36 TO 65,12 

00370 CURS 23,5:PRINT -Player T;:CURS 36,5: 

PRINT "Player 2"| 

00390 FOR J=OT04:CURS 27,7*J:IF HCO,J) THEN 

PRINT -X" 

00390 IF ml, J) THEN CURS 39, J*7iPRINT"X" 

00400 NEXT J 

00410 IF UC0,4> OR UC1.4) TTEN 420 ELSE 440 

00420 CURS 20,13:PRINT -player";: IF H<0,4) 1 

HEN PRINT 1: ELSE PRINT 2l 
00430 PRINT - his WOn'tSOTD +60 
00440 CURS l.lSsPRINT "Press <SPAGE BAR) to 
continue"; 

00450 IF USRC 15000,55) TTEN CLS:60T0 ISO ELS 
E 450 

00460 CURS I, 15: PR I NT "Another gaae? <Y or N 
>" 

00470 IF USRC 15000,14) THEN 610 ELSE IF U5RC 
13000,25) THEN FOR 6-0 TD 4:W<0,6>=0lWCl,6>= 
0:NEXT 6: GOTO 120 ELSE 470 
004BO+61471 
00490 CLS: PRINT: PRINT-The object of this 

gas* is to force your opanent to aa 
ke his or her centipede hit "; 
00500 PRIhT-either the uall, your "\" tail 

or their own tail. To control the cen 
ti pedes use the following keys:" 
00510 CURS 10,7:PRINT"Player T;:CURS 45,7iP 
HINT "Player 2" 

00520 CURS 12, 8: PRINT "UP <H>":CURS 47,BiPRIN 
T"UP <[>" 

O0530 CURS 5, 10: PRINT-LEFT <A> <S> RIGH 

T":CURS 40, 10:PRINT"LEFT li> <t> RIOTT 

00540 CURS 10,12:PRINT"D0HN <Z)':CURS 45,12: 
.PRINT-DOWN </>" 

00550 PRINT: PRINT- NOTE : If you turn back 
en youself you will hit your own tail. 

To avoid this turn 90 degrees at a tiee.- 
00560 CURS 30, 16: PRINT "Press the (SPACE BAR, 

to continue"} 
00570 IF USRC 15000, 55) THEN 120 ELSE 570 
O0580 RESTORE 590:FOR 1-15000 TO 150OT:READ 
J:P0K£ [,J:NEXT I 

00590 DATA 121,205,10,163,1,0,0,192,11,201 
00600 RETURN 
00610 CLS; PRINT "Bye Bye":END 

Bits & Bytes - December 1 985 63 



Programmes 



COMMODORE 64 

Martian Lander 

By P. A. Gordon 

Your spaceship is sinking fast. It is 
your responsibility to pilot it through a 
cavern, and land it as gently as possible. 
A limited amount of fuel is available. Full 
instructions are included in the program. 
The listing uses the normal Commodore 
1520 printer codes, but in case any 
readers are not familiar with these, here 
they are: 




S. =. 

i '-. 

1 '■■ 

t = ■ 



1 "■ 

k_ - . 

a. >. 

i- '■■ 

a. *, 

E. =. 

A -. 

a ', 



Hont 

CLR' 

CURSOR DOWN' 
CURSOR UP ' 
CURSOR RIGHT 
.CURSOR LLFT" 



L. "■ 



F2- 
Fs ' 
F=5 

. . .F6- 
F2 
. ...F8 

. . Black ' 
. . .WHITE 
. .RED 
. CYAN" 

PUKPLi ' 
. .&RLEN 

BLUE" 

*ELLCU 

RFUERSl 

REVERSE OFF 



10R C-64 CKLV 



. ORfiNGl 
6R0UIN 
.LiGHT RED 
GRflf I 
- . ERflV 2 
. .LIGHT GREEN 

.LIGHT BLUE 
.GP.flV a 



3 R'lll 3? P. A. GORDON 1985. 

4 REH CHk IS I CHURCH. [1985] 

18 PRINT -sCrjriQQQCGCCiCn IIIIIIIII 11= 1AR5I 

■it. . ■'■■■ipr.rc ' 

lb PFiNi ,, rrj.'jr.r.i3aap press rh 

* Kir l 

20 GLTftj: TF=rl ■ THEN28 

25 PRINT 5 tori Lf-.HU V 0L1R ShIP ON THE MAR 

SIAN SuRFACi REMEMBER, 'hE SOFTER' 

30 PR INT ~ ■.*-..-,.*.... THE LANDING 

. THE MORE POINTS. 

35 PRIHI at_LLLCOf"*n k;fv = LEFT 

36 "RIHt 

3? P^[H' LLlFiAL-MOH KEV = RIGHT 
3B PR: NT 



39 PRIM" JJJFl KEY =. PULL THRUST' 

■10 PRINT 

*1 PRINT 1JJF7 KfV = HFilF THRUST 

45 FBI MI QfliOCOi PRESS ANY K 

fr C. 

4? iJt5324B.U0=54 296:NA=512B3. H.542S0 

50 GET At: [FA*- THEN50 

51 POKEvJ'Zl . I 5. POitt 2040, [9?: POKE 2011 ,193 
POKE 2042.1 33. PQKE2043. I 35: "OKEU'IB .5 

52 X'35:Vs68.P0KEU«39, I: 5'. 61 .PfJKEU-41 ,5 
. Bh*183:BU=2l7;BX-232.Bf»217: PU -900 

53 FORM = I 22B8 T01 2358- READO- p OKCN .Q: NEXT 

54 F0RN = l2352TO12414:RFflDn:POKEM,0:MF.KT 
Ifi HORN = 124 19TD12470; REflDQ. POKEN.O. NEXT 
5? F0RN = I24H3T01 2512= REfiOQ. POKE M.Q:NE*T 
60 PRINT SA 1 

65 PRIN' QDHQE. 1 Oi 8.1 & 

at l 

30 print 5 a_ r a. 

s. t 

75 PRINT R. L. 5 Di_ 

5. £. 

85 PRINT R_ Oi_ DB O 

R-l L 

90 PRIN" a Et E £_ R 

1 L 

95 PRINT 5 f_ 8 Dr_ 
EG, j. 

1015 PRINT R_ DL C£ 

□R. £. 

105 PP1NI R <_ R □>_ 

L 
110 PRINT s £.] RJ r_ 

a t 

115-PRTNT R (_) R ) [_) 

S.) C. 

129 FRINT R. (_] R_] [J 

SJ r. 

125 print e. i_ e. Dt_ 

es. L 

138 PRINT S. Ql K L. 

S £-' 

135 PRINT e Oil CP_ Hl. 

|40 PRINT 'S. f_ a t_ 

5 r." 

[4b PRINT S. L E L 

s. (_■ 

150 PRINT {£ 

L.' 

1 55 P^INT E. 



CfHCE 
ELECTCCNICS 
LTD 

Your West Auckland agents for 




BUSINESS COMPUTERS 



NEW PREMISES 

4 Waipareira Ave 

Henderson 



NEW PHONES 
837-1362 
837-1363 



160 


FDKLU'21 , J.POKL'JU .15 




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»4 ,BX: POK 


Eu.^ 


.e v 




21a 


P-PEtttt 13> 1 




22? 


ir-P^THlNr=V-[S'l J:S=S-.P2. 


"0KEUP.12 


5.rt5KEhlfl»?,123:POKt>i, IF]:fu-FU-: 




238 


IFP :3THEN5=S- .05. r 'GkLUft,12': 


[POKllaft-2 


.I? 1 


. p ~*tn,10 ru-ru-2 




240 


IPP-42THENX-X-3: »=T.( ,05«i 


:tg=FU-l 


25£5 


ID i 1 lktN'«-X'3. ^ = , ,f .85»S 


;pu=fu-i 


2Dt) 


[CftKCJ'TI .■-ITHIN'TRB 




2?® 


[i 5--3ltt( 4.1B8 




2RB 


S 3 • B 1 




/ J0 


['■'Fu<[ TdlNBrtfl 




3?K 


r -v.s 




35*! 


i'R>n sii., 1 1 ? 1 1 1 1 1 , 1 1 1 1 i 


1 1 n 1 1 irj 


4f ifji-T-LL'- WTf285- ■' 1 




15 


■-.'.' Mil 1 m 1 11 1 11 n 11 1 11 1111 itirtf 


ut 1 


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- ■■■■..•.■ ''.'■■ ..[.■■ 




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■ -1- 1- _j."i . J .'.■ ■.;■[ m-..,'.12. POItEi 


. ;, PtJKiH, 


;i pi 1 -y 1 .-• 3? . - 1' i> -i tjo-i.p 




JJP 


IF-EEKiV' W 'i^j'i.uwj? 




3 >•? 


C i; '■■:■!.* 




■■'. 


■- ./ - '.- ,.r..i' ■ 0* lh'i- -' 


e. 0l >EH.? 


.11/ 


1? ' : ' "J., if 




■-. ?, 


1 "' i2OT UL ■ 1 . '1- aff) 1', 


1-.-. 1110(1 


•i ■ 


r. 1. - ■si.b 1 F?.A 


0. pni.Lh.8 


■■-■L 


■ ■ . T l£li(, ' 'H SPEVr . EvL' 


■'vi L ir... v 




• ■ . .' .. iTJJ. .'. ^ jl : ■■ S.M ' n ~~:./-t. 


'1 i" 


■'.'•' „. . ■ -'-• i_ • =■ U ft 


■R- S c tR 



47^ PRINT fJirjANO IT SHOULD BE LESS 'Mfltl 

.45 METRES PEP SECOND 

480 GOTD550 

503 FORT si TO 10 

501 P0kEUA.33:B0KEiJfiOe . 33- TlBr.h .20 

5B2 FORfl=lTO20:NEXT 

583 POKEUft,0:POKEUIfi>3B,0.PnK.EH.0 

5ft4 FORfl'l T05:HEXT 

535 NEXT 

539 PRINT i_ :PQHEU-21 .0: PR INT - QtirinorjQQffll 

nnnnnnnn imimm i tts aff lPndimgh 
523 i_R = IT»Tt-iee*S/C-231 

530 PRINT ■QOE.VOlIR LANDING RATE 13 : 'ILK! 
OUT QF 22." 

540 PRIMTatl = THE BEST. 22=U0RSK V 
550 PRINT "DO. ANOTHER GAME? I 

560 GETAt: IFftls THENSBe 

5V0 IFFl*= 't"THENP0<EHJ'31 ).0:RUN 

575 lFAiO N THEN5B9 

580 pb i nt ■■ s nnncmnnnnnnnnn th»m< 

9 AN V WA Y I I I I I! I 

598 0QT0598 

800 P0KEUf2l .I4.P0KEU'42,7 

310 FOR7 = 1TO10: FORT = 1T018 

820 P0HEU'6.X.P0KEU-t7,v:NEXTT 

938 PDKEU*23.S.POKE'J<29.8 

648 FORTM T013 

Sib PQKEiJQ.15:POKLiJA,l29.POKEUA«4,I29:P0 

<£H,fj 

950 PQKEU.6 .X.PQKE.Ut? ,v;Nt"XTT 

868 P0KEU'23,8iPaKEU>2a,B;NeXT2 

BBb X=35.v-£iB;PO*r\l.x;PrjK£*J-l .V 

a67 POKEUD .0:POKEtJft.0. p OXEUA'4 ,»:POKEH.B 

320 IFO='. THEN460 

8B0 GOTtnbB 

1055 UATfiB. 0.^.0. 0.0. 8, 8. 0.1 5. 224. 2. IS, I 

6 .0,1 6, I 6. 8,32, B. 0.12 .3,8.63. 248.0 

1056 DTiTAlJl ,250,8,255.254.0.191 .250,0.1 

7 .16.0,13. [44 ,8.39.200.8 

1057 DPTA32.a.8.1i:'.'a,O,B.H.e,0.O.0,0 
.0.8.0.0 

[065 'jMA0,0.a,8,0.B.e.a.8.0.0.0,0.8.0 
:32a UATA255. 255. 255. 255, 255. 255, 255,255 
. 2-5. 255. 255. 255. B.«. 8. 8. 0.0, 0,0. 0.3 
.875 DATA8. 0.8.0 .8.8.8,8 ,0 ,B,B,B.8 

la? ? rjriiqa.e.a.e.e.a.s.e.B.Q.fl.e.e 

J.1H0 J.3! f'2 j-5. 255. 255. 255. 255. 255. 255, 255 
.255. 255. 255 .255.8,0.8,0.8.8.8.0.8,8 
1 2*5 ufiTPB ,8,3,0.0,8.0,8,8.8 .8 .8,0 

i390 D'1Tf>8 .E .8.8.8.0.8.8.0.0 .8.0 .0,8,0 
,P.0.0.^.8.0.^.2:.0.0.P,0.0.0,8.a.e 

i ;38 DHTA8.e.8.32,8.a,0.a.8.0.64.0.4.B 

7.8.i.8.a.8.e.i2,32.a,B.a.e.a.i6.64 

■•T.-,,i,|i..ii.2.e.0.0.J.8,32.32,8,4,8 
54 .f .8 .8 .3.8 .0 .8,68 ,9 ,8 .0 .8.12 ,0.a.B,0 

Anyone who doesn't want to type 
Martian Lander can have it put on tape 
they send $4, a blank tape, and a 30 
stamp to: 
P.A. Gordon, 
46 Hinau St, 
Christchurch 4. 



84 Bits S Bytes - December 1985 



Programmes 



SPECTRA VIDEO 



Hangman 




The words in the data 
statements can be changed so 
long as 100 words are in the 
list 

10 CLS 

20 SCREEN 1,3 

30 COLOR 15,1,1 

40 LOCATE 80,90 

50 PRINT " BR I DEER HANGMAN" 

60 FOR 1= 1 TO 500: NEXT I 

70 CLS:PLAY"t250", "t250", "t2 

50" 

30 LINE (128,1)- (255, 192), 4, 

BF 

90 LINE (128, 160)~(252, 16B), 

■5 BF 

100 LINE < 152, 44) -(156,1 GO), 

1,BF 

110 LINE (152,44)-<216,4B),1 

.BF 

120 LINE (214,44)-(214,76),1 

130 CIRCLE(214,84),B,8 

140 LI NE (212, 92) -(216, 124), 1 

0,BF 

150 LINE C136,15B)-(152,144'i 

,1 

160 LINE (156, 144)-C172, 158) 

rl 

170 LINE C156,64)-C172,4S),1 

180 LINE C212, 100)-(200, 112) 

,10 

190 LINE (216, 100)-<.22B, 112) 

i 10 

200 LINE (212,124)- (200, 140) 

,10 

210 LINE (216,124)-(228,140) 

,10 

220 LINE (214, 80) -(214,66), 1 



230 CIRCLE (210 ,031,1,1 

240 CIRCLE (2 18, 83;, 1, 1 

250 CIRCLE (2 14, 92), 3, 8,. 5, 2. 

64 

260 FOR M= 1 TO S9y:NEXT II 

270 LINE(128,1>-(255,132),4, 

BF 

280 LOCATE 10, 10 

290 PRINT " Letters used so 

far" 

300 REM select word 

310 AW*="" 

320 RN=RND( -TIME) 

330 RN=INTtRN*100) + 1 

350 FOR J- 1 TO RN 

360 READ AW* 

370 NEXT J 

330 BW*=AW$ 

390 LW=LENi.AU*.i 

400 FOR P= 1 TO LW 

410 LOCATE 10+ C P* 1 2 ) , 1 00 : PR I 

NT" " 

420 NEXT P 

430 LH=OiPR=30:PC=€ 

440 AC»="ABCDEFBHIJKLMNOPQRS 

TUVWXYZ" 

450 AS*="abcctefghi jklntnopqrs 

fcuvwxyz" 

460 FOR K= 1 TO LW+26 

470 LINE(10,150)-(120,192),3 

,3F 



4B0 LOCATE 11,160 

490 PRINT " Enter next lette 

r" 

500 :$='"■ 

510 Z5-INKEY*: Ih LEN(2$)=0 I 

HEN 60TO 510 

520 LI=0 

530 FOR 1= 1 TO 26 

540 IF Z*=HID*(AC$,I,1) THEN 

Z*^MI0S<A<5S, 1,1) 
550 IF Z$=MID*(AS*, I,l.» THEN 

LI=1 
560 NEXT I 
570 LOCATE 30,170 
580 PRINT ZS 

590 IF LI 00 THEN GOTO 670 
600 L I NE (10,1 50 ) - ( 1 24 , 1 92 ; , 
12, BF 

610 LOCATE 10, 160 
620 PRINT" "j ZS; " is NOT i 
n the " 

630 PRINT " alphabet": PR 
INT 

640 PRINT " TRY AGAIN" 
650 FOR M= 1 TO 2500: NEXT M 
660 GOTO 470 
670 POPC+12 

680 IF F'CMQO THEN PC=10:PR= 
PR+15 

690 LOCATE PC, PR 
700 PRINT Z* 
710 I..F=0 

720 FOR lt= i rtj LW 
730 IF Zt=hIDt- (AWS,N, 1 > THEN 

LF-H:MID*tAW*,hi l>-"0" :GOTO 

750 
740 NEXT M 

750 IF LF=0 THEN LH=LH+1 ELS 
l GOTO 800 
760 Wi*-*f->2sjecc" : W2*-"o2#col 

ad" 

770 PLAY W1*,W2$ 

780 ON LH GOSUB 970,990,1010 

, 1030, 1050, 1070, 1090, 1110,11 

30, 1150, 1170, 1190, 1210, 1230, 

1250,1270, 1290 

790 NEXT K 



80 LF= 1 0+ C LF* 1 2 ) : PS*= " o5c e- 

ge-c" 

§10 PLAY PS$: LOCATE LF,9B:PR 

INT Z* 

820 FI=0 

830 FOR N= 1 TO LW 

840 IF MID*(AW$,N,1)<>"0" TH 

EN FI=1 

B50 NEXT N 

860 IF FI=1 THEN GOTO 790 

870 LINE (1,125)- (130, 192), B, 

BF 

880 C 1 *= " t 250o5c CdC o4bo5c c 04 

baa f n5r cdco4bo5c " 

890 C2$="t250o5eefedeedco4ba 

oSeefede" 

900 C3*= " 1 250o6c ,- dc o5bo6c c o5 
bag f o5ccdco4bo5c " 

91<J PLAY C1$,C2$,C3$ 

920 LOCATE 5,130:PRINT" CONG 

RATULATIONS ! ! !" 

930 LOCATE 5,150 :PRINT" yo 

u have guessed " 

940 LOCATE 5, 170: PRINT" co 

rrectly" 

950 FOR N= 1 TO 3500: NEXT N 

960 END 

970 LINE (128,160)-(252, 168) 

»2,BF 

9S0 RETURN 

990 LINE «:i52,44)~(156,160), 

1,BF 

1000 RETURN 

1010 LINE (152,44)~(21&,48), 

1,BF 

1020 RETURN 

1030 LINE (214, 44) -(21 4, 76), 

1 

1040 RETURN 

1050 CIRCLE (214, 84), B, 8 

1060 RETURN 

1070_LINE(212,92)-(216, 124), 

10, Bf 

10B0 RETURN 

1090 LINE (136, 158)-(152, 144 

),1 

{Continued on page 66) 



YOU NEED US! 

• Standard Telephone & Cables (NZ) Ltd 

• Delphi Industries Ltd 

• Databank Systems Ltd 

These are just some of the manufacturers who recognise the 
advantages of employing 

PCB DESIGN SPECIALISTS 

FOR EXPERT ADVICE ON — COMPONENT SOURCING 

— PCB LAYOUT — BOARD MANUFACTURE 

— COMPONENT SELECTION — PROTOTYPE ASSEMBLY 

FOR PROFESSIONAL PCB ARTWORK DRAW ON OUR EXPERIENCE. 

PHONE AUCKLAND 866-426 



P| CADesbgn 



Bits & Bytes - December 1 985 65 



Programmes 



(Continued 

11 00 RETURN 

1.110 LINE (156,144>-U72,158 

hi 

1120 RETURN 

1130 LINE aSS, 64)- C 172*48), 

1 

1140 RETURN 

1150 LINE C212,100)-C200,112 

), 10 

1160 RETURN 

1170 LINE (216riO0)-C228, 112 

),10 

1180 RETURN 

1190 LINE (212, 124)-(200, 140 

l , 1 

1200 RETURN 

1210 LINE (216, 124.J-C228, 140 

),10 

1220 RETURN 

1230 LINE C214,80)-(2l4»86)i 

10 

1240 RETURN 

1.250 CIRCLE (210, 83), 1, 1 

12&0 RETURN 

1270 CIRCLE<218,83),t, 1 

1280 RETURN 

1290 CIRCLEC214,92),3,e,.5,2 

.64 

1300 LINE (10,140)-(124,192) 

,12,BF 

1310 LOCATE 5, 130 : PRINT" « 

BAD LUCK >>" 

1320 LOCATE 5,150 : PRINT" 

the word 15" 

1330 LOCATE 20, 170: PRINT Bt^* 

1 340 F 1 *= " v I Oo i 1 2c r 64c 21 4e-l 

4d " : F25='' v 1 0o21 2c r 64c 21 4e-l 4 

d":F3*="c2r64c" 

1350 PLAYFi$+Fl*,F2$+F2$:PLA 

YF3*,F3*:F0R N= 1 TO 3500: NE 

XT N 

1360 END 

l j 70 DATA open , z er o , k n oc k , so 

ft , caught , sudden 1 y , young » ytl 

low, doctor , kept , gnaw, bui lo, f 

r 1 ghtened , not 1 ce , m gh t , gr een 

, red , brown, black, blue, pink,h 

undred 

1380 DATA b oy , g i r 1 , soc C er , t e 

tuns, green, pur pi e f cold, tempe 

r 1 sadly 

1 390 DAT A wrier * , under , over , i 

ab I e , >: hai r , b ed r oofri , w i n , I osej 

iwoneyi decei ve, 1 s, why, dinner , 

here,ra'itr 

1400 DATA hard, softly, plane, 

salt , pepper , human, world, tor e 

tan, because 

1410 DATA walk, think, until, c 

lothes, fence, trouble, heard, t 

hirsty, hand, brother ,si=t^r 

1420 DATA af cer ,day,wi 11 ,dow 

r», five, wher e, li ke,ne, not , the 

y , hel p ed , p 1 ay ed , th 1 s , 1 00 k cJ , 

sh e, ai r per t , 1 1 1 1 1 e , wi t h , goes 

, hel ping, get , Di g, meet , play in 

?, today 
430 DATA surpr 1 se, word, sent 
ence , hope, cat , dp^g , mother , fat 
h e jr , mummy , d ad d y , mum , d ad , b r ot 
her , sister , teacher , t el eyi sic 
fi , gun , f or est , b u sh , t r e e , in v ad 
er , al i en, onion 
1440 DATA carrot , banana, appl 
e, orange, tea, tee, f eiioa, gyps 
y, paua, shel 1 , =1 *, ostrich, fiv 
e, on e, two, three, four , eight, n 
ine, ten 

66 Bits S Byles - December 1 985 



VIC 20 

Death Mission 

By Julian Murphy 

In Death Mission, for the unexpended 
VIC, you are in a spaceship which is 
slowly falling towards an abandoned city 
on the planet below. Your mission is to 
land safely by destroying the city, using 
bombs which you release by pressing the 
SHIFT key. 

The bomb's speed and trajectory can 
be controlled by holding down the SHIFT 
key. If you successfully complete a 
mission, the game begins again, with a 
larger city. 

Control characters are printed in the 
listing with a line beneath them. 

1 REr19??7?i»xxxxsszxx 

2 RETOnDEATH MISSION!" 

4 REM" JUL I HN riURPHi'" 

5 REM*******"******" 

10 P0KE36879.I 18:CH=7:R=1 

20 GOSUB1000 

25 PRINT s_ :POKE368?9,110;6OSUB1300 

38 GOSUB900 

40 FOR HOUE^BTOMAXSTEPINC 

50 S=PEEKC653) 

60 IFSANDF=8TKENG0SUBBBB 

20 IFS=0BNOF=1THENF=2 

100 ONFGOSUB400,510,600 

150 IFFfWDB>=81B5THENGOSUB700 

200 PRINT "SBESCCRESC; 

210 IFF=0THENPRlNTTABC16r+f IRE! 

300 NEXT MOUE:GOTO30 

400 REfWtUPOflTE BOMB** 

410 POKEB,32:B=B+l:P=PEEK[B3 

420 IFP=30THEN700 

430 P0KEFNCtB),l3:P0KEB.2? 

4*0 2=6-7680722: P0KES2.22a+22*CZ-INTCZ>> 

450 u=u+h 

4 90 RETURN 

"310 U=U-0 

520 P0KF.B.32 

530 IFUO0ThENF'3:RETJRN 

54B a=BH:lFPEEKfB)=30THENSC=Sr*5:GOTO7a 



5S0 POKEFMCCB3.5:°OKEB,3! 

"560 PCKES2.200+UAND255 

530 RETURN 

600 REnJf***KDR0P****K* 

610 P0KEB.32 

620 B=B+Z2: IFPEEKCB }=30THENSC=5C«I0:C|OTO 



COMPUTER 

GAMES 

FOR HIRE 

Games available for weekly hire 
for the following computers: 

* AHSTRAD * APPLE 

* COM 64 * VIC 20 * BBC 

* ATARI * TRS 80/SYS 80 

Send for catalogue and 
membership details to: 

COMPUTER GAME RENTALS LTD 
P.O. BOX 30947, LOWER HUTT. 

Name 

Address 

Type of Computer 



700 

640 P0KEFNCCB3.5:POKEB,33 
630 RETURN 

700 REMXKXEXPLOSION*" 

210 PDKE51 ,0;»OKES2,0:POKES3,0:PDKES4.20 

I 

720 P0KEFNt(B1,2.P0KEB.34 

230 FQRlMTO100:NExr 

740 P0KES4 ,0 

750 POKES, 32 

7B0 F=0 

230 RETURN 

300 REM««LI=lUHCHiiiJ<i 

310 PDKES3. 220, PRINT S_'tflBtl6r 

820 B=x+22 

340 POKES3,PEEK£S31-10 

850 P0KEG.32 

360 B=Bt22.P0KEFNCCB).5:PQKEB.3! 

88B POKFS3.0-P=1 

830 RETURN 

900 REftaxsNOUE SHIP*** 

910 P0KEX.32 

920 X=X + 1 

930 1FPEEKCX.1 ]=3BTt+EN2080 

940 POKES*, 28 

950 POKEFNCfX+l ),13;PCKEX+1 ,29 

960 !FX=8134TnEN30aB 

999 RETURN 

1000 Rfni«iSEI UF**« 
:010 P»:HF Q. PQKE36873.I10 
1020 P0KE35878.O4 
1030 POKES 1 ,0:POK.E , 52,28. n O'.l =ib .0; PQKC56, 
28 







1040 FORI =27*STD?+Sx( 22+2] 

1050 RE0DA:P0KEI+7l68,A:klEXT 

1100 DAT A32, 32, 40, 256, 250, 40, 32, 32 

1110 DATA0,3,18,43,191 ,191 .42.10 

1 120 DATA8 , 192 . 160 .232 ,254 ,254 , 168.160 

1130 DATPI1 26, 126. 66. 66, 126. 126. 66, 66 

1140 DATA4B. IB, 60, 63, S3, 60, 48,48 

I 150 DflTflB. 0,0, 0.0, 0,0,0 

116B DATA8, 0.126. 126. 60, 60. 24. 24 

117B DATA0, 68,16, 56. 16, 0,68,0 

1380 REfliSNIP %. CITY" 

1310 A = I:D = 2 

1320 X=??B1 

1330 PlRX = l: INC = l 

1360 CH=CH+I 

1320 CW=10 

13B0 CC=B175 

1400 FORI =0TOCU 

1410 Pl=CC-l=P2=CC+i 

1420 F0RJ=8T0CH-I 

1430 P0KEP1-22U ,38:POKEP2-22nJ,30 

i448 NEXTJ.I 

1500 DEFFNCC>0=x* 3B220 

1510 DEFFNR(X)=XINTCRN0C1 )IX] 

1600 SI =36874 : S2 =51+ 1 : S3=S2t 1 : S4 =53+1 :Z' 

3687B 

1780 PQKE36869.255 

1999 RETURN 

2000 REHxiiFflILUREii.ii 

2010 POKES I ,200:POKES2.0;POK£S3,0:PaK£S4 

.0:°OKE36B79,42 

2020 P0KEX,32:»0KEX+1 .32 

2030 X=X+22: 1FX>=8185THEN2070 

2040 P0KEFNCCX),13!P0KEX,28 

2050 P0KEFNCCX+1 ),I3;P0K€X+1 ,29 

2060 GOTO2028 

202B for! =iro5a 

20B0 F0RJ=-1T01 

2090 P0KE36864 ,PEEK( 36864 )• J . PDKE36S65,! 

FEKC 368651- J 

2100 NEXTJ.I 

2110 P0KES1 .0.POKE36829.8 

2115 PRIMT £_ 

2120 PRINT t£_ YOU FAJLEDl" 

2130 FORI =lrO280.NEXT 

2140 PRINT ■QjfiHiT n KEY TB TRY AGAIN!,' 

2142 --. ; t. " ' Lfi aoaoflQ. score ■■ ; sc • 

2150 POKE29B,0:ulAni98. l:POKE!SB,0 

2150 RUN 

2888 RfflninlSSIONiiii 

2999 REMmCOMPLETED*** 

3000 P0KE36B23,3. 1 J=R+l:PRINT i'-SC^SC 



3B10 PRINT %n *0U SUCCEEDED" 

3820 PRINT gli-eUT ij ILL YOU 1 

3830 PRiNT'R. SUCCEED THIS Tint" 

3040 PRINT SEflflQJl SCORE :SC 

3050 PRINT Sflfla HIT ft KEY TO PLAY 

38S0 PRINT S_ ROUND :R 

3020 GCTfVt: !Ffl-i= T h EN3070 

3080 GOT 025 



Programmes 



HAND-HELD 



Germ Warfare 



By R. Gibberd 



This game for the Sharp PC 1251 
should run on other models, except that 
the screen addresses may have to be 
altered, since the program uses POKEs 
for the graphics. 

There are five types of germs, two of 
which are good and three of which are 
evil. The good guys have starry eyes and 
should be injected using the decimal 
point button. The bad germs should be 
fired at with the minus button. If you 
inject a bad germ, an invasion occurs and 
three goodies die. 



:3a 



s?ffas; 



5* MIT 30: D RIN7 " 

(5ERM WARFARE" 
10: CLEAR : ^=59: A=9: 

INPUT v SKILL <1CFST) 

A=9: RAHBOf! 
15: DI^ Q"$a>*17»T*(5>»y 

$ C I > * 1 7 
13:USU> = " 

V 

2S:Q*(i)=" 

22^$C) = " <*■]*■}" 
24:T$(2)-"C*Y*>" 
26:T$(3)="(+i+) v 
28:Tf<4>=*(8<9>* 

30:TK5) = "(-J->" 

40:wflIT ASS (PI): PRINT 

45=1= RnD 5:E=I+ RN3 12 
50:PRINT "S=", LEFT$ CS 

55*. 0=0 

00:^$= INKZY$ 

65 J IF k$ G0SU3 2S0!R=R+ 

1! GOTO 99 
79: IF QOl lE t = 1: 

GOTO 50 
30:R=R*:: IF S>3 LtT M« 

,, -2: 3-3-1 
35:1- S>10 PAUSE "BOnUS 

*:?=*-".: 3=3+1 
98" IF R< = 15 G0 T C 48 
95: PAUSE » GAME 

VER" 
100: WAIT : PRIfT "YOUR S 

CORE IS ", 1ST «S+B 

)*109-. 2#PO 



113: IrfPU.T "NEXT GAttE? (Y 

/*!) "SZ* 
12S: IF Zf= v ¥' GOTO 5 
139! IF Zf="N" END 

140: GOTO U0 

200:REM #*FIRE??** 

210: IF m= v ." GOSUB 480: 

GOTO 248 
220: IF *i$="-" GOSUB 300: 

GOTO 266 
238:S=S-i: A=fi-1: GOTO 28 

9 
248: IF I<3 LET S=S+2: 

s hUSE ' THANK 

S v : PAUSE ' J I NEE 

UE3 THAT": RETURN 
250: GOSUB 58853=3-2: A=A- 

3: GOTO 238 
260:IF I<3 LET S=S-2:A=A 

-l: PAUSE " 
UG6 [ ! v : GOTO 238 
27@:S=S+2: RE T! JRn 
230: PAUSE '•' MEr^ LEF 

T : ' !A 




290: 


IF A<=0 PRINT v 






GftttE OVER": GOTO 


1 




00 




295: 


RETURN 




3@0: 


REM **Y0U ATTACK** 




320' 


iJAIT 28: BEEP 1 




350: 


PRINT "3= v ; LEFT* ( 
$<1>jE)!T$(D 


U 


370 


PRINT "S=", LEFTS i 
5(1 )ȣ)) CHR* 953 
CKR* 95i CNR* 95.: 

CHR$ 95, CHR* 95 


S 


380 


WAIT M 




39@ 


RETURN 




490 


REM **IttMUNISATION** 


418 


RESTORE : SEEP 2 




429 


READ C»D»EiFrGfH»N 
<K 

PRINT " ) )■ 


J 


448 


— 




-*JT$<I) 




445 


(CftLL &11E0: FOR Y= 

TO 4 


1 


4<l? 


:P0KE C, 0,8, 0,0,0 




453 


:P0KE Bj0p65.-12T.i27j 




O: POKE E, 28, 23, 28 


-2 




3 j 28: POKE F,28t28 


• 2 




470 



488 

485 

490 

580 

519 



530 

540 
550 
568 
579 

530 

535 

590 
330 
310 
320 



338 
340 



353 



127: POKE N, 127, 127, 

127,127,127: POKE J, 

127, 127, 127, 127.127 
iPOKE K, 127, 127, 127,1 

27,127: POKE L, 127,1 

27,127,127,127 
:C=B:D=E:E=F:F=G:G=H: 

H=n:N=J:J=K:K=0 
:NEXT Y: CALl SUES 
RETURN 

:REM **ENEMY ATTACK** 
(WAIT 15: PAUSE " 

OH NO!": BEEP 3: 

PAUSE ' INVASIO 

N ! ! " 
i PRINT T$<I)i ,J =>(*J*> 

iCALL fcllEB 

IFOR J=l TO 15 

iREAD 5 

■ POKE D, 30, 121,83, 121 

,30 

NEXT J 

CAll SUES 

RETURN 

REM **DATA** 

REil *INJEC T . 3ATA.* 

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Bits & Bytes - December 1 985 67 



Programmes 



SANYO MBC-550: 

Dogfight 

by Chris Miller 

This is a shoot-em-up' game where 
you have to attack enemy aeroplanes 
before they shoot you. As you progress 
the game gets harder and faster. 

The game contains strange sound 
effects, and full instructions. 

You can obtain this game and two 
others by sending $5 and a formatted 
disk to Chris Miller, 23 Haronga Road, 
Gisborne. 



J CDLOP .', l:CLS;£'<HBQLiH,'>l?, 501 . 'DOGFIGHT 

, a. ■!.<.' saVrtSOLi I 10.331 . "DOGFIGHT" . 6 .H .3: 

jTHBOL l47t„123J , - DOGFIGHT" . i . 1 .0. 2t SVP1B0 

l tag J , i;bi . "DOEfight ',£,,«. 3. :>i line io.oj - 

1039. J99' .X.BsLiriE f?0.40> -1491 . >3B> .3.B: 

1 SvnBOL 150. laoi . "BY CHRJS nlLLER" .S.r.O 
1 SvnBOt. <5S. IUS> . "St CHRIS MILLER " .I.;. Z: 
DIM BSt 100 1 .MP < 100)1 GOSUB 1 300 1 PUT (3G0 , 1 
■J'." .nFmFOP = 93 TQ 445 STEP SOlPUTlO.Mu 
! .&SaN£Vl iFOft 0=1 TO 2OO0t NEKTi CLS: GDSUS 

J CLS: DIM NT1T4.3) , TGlil.Sl :SET|3|}0. 1001 
- ,^20. I 101 .NT;LlW£l300, 1001 -1320.1 101 ,0, 
BiLINE 1300* 1 OS) - 1320. 103) . 0* LINE {310, 100 
1 -1310,110) .01 GET 130O, lyO) - ( 320 , 1 10 3 . TG: 
COLOR r.o 

3 CLS; LIME l0.0)-lt>39. I 491 . 3. Bl LINE I 71 . 11 
)-<5Bl . 141) , I . BFl CIRCLE 1 300. 1 701 . 40 1 L I NE 
1260. i ?0> - (340. 170) IPAINTI3O0. 171 ) iSYnBD 
Li:9e. 173) , -FUEL". 1 . i .OsSYHBOL (230, 1651 . 
" E F " . 1 . I 1 L I NE I 300 . 1 1>9 ) - 1 330 , 1 

o7! . 1 l SYMBOL 142u. ISO I . "OAIIABE! ".r.l 
11) FOR 0=400 TQ 530 STEP I Si C IRCL6 [Q. Io3 
1.3... .SlNEXTjSVUBOL 120, 1301 ."HITS] ",2.1 
(LOCATE 21.4.UPRINT HT : PUT (300 . 1001 . TGl 
DAM=550! X-300: Y= I OOi 0-3001 P^4C1 TIHE»""O0 
l 001 01-':FA=230iFD» 167; LOCATE 2,10. I : PR IN 
T "SCORE "SCl SYMBOL 120. 170) . "SHOTS! ".2,1 
13 PUTII.V1 .TG.4N01 IF RIGHT* 1 TIME* .21 ""0 
0-OR RIGHT*ITIME*,2)= "30" THEN G0SU6 300 

ElSE IF INTlRND»DN)-0 THEN G0SU6 4000 
Id LOCATE 2,o0.1iPRINT TIME*! Q«=INKEY*| I 
F [}»=■■■' THEN 30 

20 PUT U, V) ,NTl IF □*="S"AND Y>20 THEN vi 

Y-10 ELSE IF 0*=""3"AND Y(130 THEN ¥-Y»IO 
ELSE IF 0*""4'AND * .'■BO THEN K-x-20 ELSE 
IF OS- "a "AND H340 THEN X»X*20 ELSE IF 

0*=" "THEN PUTtn.vl.TQlOUT IHIB.2351LINE 
(W*IO.I40)-l!t*10,Y»10) .3sG0SUS 10O0 

30 PUTlO.P) .NP:0=0-SPlP-P-lSP/2> ■ IF OlB2 
THEM Q>"520 ELSE IF P<2] THEN P-130 

33 PUT 10.PI .SSlGOTO 15 

500 SYMBOL too, 10) , "DO YOU WANT INSTRUCTI 

QMS'* !V/N)",2,1 

310 »*-INPUT*(l) 1 IF J*-VOR Jt»*"»" THEN 
600 ELSE IF X»<. ;"N"AND l*i;"n" THEN OUT 
tH3a,255l0UT 1.H3S. 23Sl GOTO 310 

530 RETURN 

OUD LOCATE lO, lOlPRlNT" YOU AftE IN A P 

LANE FLY INS OVER ENEMY TERRITORY, YOU 

R" 

610 PRINT TABi 10) "MISSION TO SHOOT DONN 

AS MANY OF THE ENEMY AS POSSIBLE." 

Ul) PRINT TABl 101 "tF YOU MIT YQUft TARGET 
YOU LL QET ANOTHER ONE THAT UILL" 

630 PRINT TAB MO) ■■ APPEAR RANDOMLY ON THE 
SCREEN. AFTER YOU ' UE SHOT DOLJN 30" 

MO PRINT TABl IOJ "PLANES. YOU'LL GRADUAT 

E ONTO THE NEXT ROUND - HARDER AND" 

650 PRINT TABl 10) "FASTER THAN BEFORE - A 

s hell as gain img a free man. ■■ 

060 PfilrtT TABllO)" GCCAiSlQNALY YOU MIL 

1 BE Damaged by enemy fire and every- 
670 PRINT TAB (16) "30 SECONDS YOUR FUEL D 
R.QP&. IF YOU RUN OUT OF FUEL OR YOUR" 
aSO PRINT TABl lO) "DAMAGE REACHES 10. YOU 

LOSE A LIFE. " 
690 PRINT TAB 110) "MOVE USING THE UNSHIFT 
EB CURSOR KEYS, WITH THE SPACE BAR TO" 
700 PRINT TAB! 10) "FIRE. GOOD 

LUCK, I I I ":I»=INPUT«l II 1 RETURN 

1000 SH-SH* 1 1 LOCATE 24. 4 I PR I NT SH 

1001 OUT hH3a. 2331 LINE IK* 10. I 40) - II* 10, Y 
•■101, 11 OUT LH3B.23511F ABS(X-Q)C30 AND A 
BSIV-PM10 THEN PUTlO.P) .NPlQ-INT 1 (RND«2 



0)»7) »20-lO:P='lNT 1 (RND*5) »2) »2O-10lHT-HT 

+ 11 LOCATE 2I.4.HPRINT HTlSC-SC*B+SP:LCC 

ATE 2. 10. 1 iPRINT-SCORE'SCl IF HT-SO THEN 

lOtS 

1010 RETURN 

1015 DAH-SSOlFOR 0=400 TO 330 STEP 15: PA 

INTIQ. 1451 .0.3!NEKT:LV-LV-I 

1020 COLOR 0. 1 tR-R+liHT"=0:SP»SP*2lDN-DN- 

2:PUTIX,Y> .NTiPUT 10.P) ,NPl X=300l Y= lOOl 0- 

300lP=40l LOCATE 10,30lPRINT"R0UND"R+ 1 1 Fa 

R 0=1 TO 1000 1 NEXT (LOCATE 10.301PRINT" 

■' 1 COLOR 2 . Oi L INE 1 300 . 1 69) - 1 FA . FD > , 
0!FA=330lFD"167 
1030 RETURN 
150O READ EXA.EXD.N.C 

1510 FOR 0=1 TO NtREAD X I . Y 1 . 12. Y2. TP»l L 
INEiEXA+X!,EXD + Yn-[X2+EXA,Y2+EXD).C,BFl 
NEXT 

1520 GET1300. 1401 - (3*0. 150) .BS: GET (330, 1 
40) -1390. ISO) ,NPl RETURN 

2000 DATA 300. 140, 9, O, IB, 4, 22,7. L. 19,2,2 
l.l.L.O,3,4O,3.L,0,7,40.7,L.IB.7.1H.9,L, 
22. 7. 22. 9, L, 13, 5, 2S, 3, L. 3, 3, 3. 7. L, 37. 3, 3 
7.7.L 

3000 LINE1300. 169)-(FA.FD) ,OlFA»FA-4s IF 
FA ,-299 THEN FD-FD-2 ELSE FD = FD*2 
3010 LINE1300, 169) -iFA.FD) , n IF FA<270 T 
HEN 5000 ELSE IF FAt2B0 THEN SYMBOL 1 230 . 
165) , "E " . 1 . I ,7:0UT t,H3B , SOl RETURN ELSE R 
ETURM 

400O FOR Z-l TO lOlOUT t,H38,0tF0R 0"! TO 
201 NEXT 0. 1 1 PA t NT I DAM, 165) ,2,3lBAM = DAM- 
131 IF DAPK400 THEN 3000 ELSE RETURN 
3000 FOR 0=1 TO lOOOl NEXtl OUT t.H3a . 30l OU 
T t,H3B.30lDUT tHSH.SOlLV'LVi-n IF LVt3 TH 
EN PUT 10, PI .NPiPUT(X.Y) .NTlQUT tH30,2O0i 
OUT LHSfl. lOOlOUT tMia.OiFQR 0-1 TO ZOlQU 
T 1HI9. 30: NEXTt COLOR 2.0 (SOTO 3 ELSE COL 
OR 0, It CLSl SYMBOL (30.30 J . "SAME OYER". 3, 3 
.0 
3010 SYMBOL (33.35) , "GAME OVER" .3.3, 21 3YM 

BOLilOO.lOO) , "DO YQU WANT TO PLAY AGAIN? 
",2, 1 ,3lO*-IN)tEY*lO»"INPuT*ll) I IF Q»."v" 
OR 0*-"Y"THEN RUN ELSE END 



ZX81: 

Big Characters 

by Anthony Luton 

This machine code routine for the 1 6K 
ZX81 will produce enlarged characters 
on the screen. 

First type in the Basic program listing 
(Listing 1) and enter a line 1 REM con- 
taining at least 108 x's. 

RUN the program, and when it asks 
for the address, enter 16516. Enter the 
hex dump data (Listing 2), and then 
POKE 16510,0 to make the line number 
of the REM statement 0. Delete thB hex 
laoder program and SAVE line on 
tape. 

To print a big character, POKE 16417 
with the code of the character (0-63). 
You can print the character in inverse 
with POKE 16562,128. 

To set it back to normal, POKE 
16562,0. 

To set the place on the screen where 
the character is printed, POKE 16507 
with column number and 16508 with the 
line number. LET XUSR 16579 will print 
the character. 

Listing 3 is a Basic program which will 
print a message held in A$ in large letter- 
ing. 

Have a look at how that program 
works if you want to know more about 
how to use the routine. 




1Q 
15 

23 

(t% (HI 

35 
30 
35 
4-0 
4.5 

ies 

105 
HO 
115 
117 
120 
1S5 
130 
135 
14.0 
143 
i=ITGH, 
25 
15S 
200 
210 
SIS 



GOTO 1B0 

FOH H = l TO L.EN flj-3 STEP 3 

PRINT fl»(B TO fl+EJ 

LET Et=CODE RJIB+1.W16JCDCE 

LET S=S+B 

POKE P,B 

LET P=P+1 

NEXT Ft 

RETUHH 

PRINT "HDRESS?" 

INPUT P 

LETT L, = 

PRINT "ENTER LINE ■■ j !_ 

LET S=B 

INPUT ni 

G05UB IB 

PF1INT "ENTER CHECK" 

INPUT H 

IF" M=S THEN GOTO 30B 

PRINT "THE CHECK DOES NOT M 



LET P=P-INT 

GOTO 115 

LET 1_=L+1 

CLS 

GOTO 115 



ILEN F)*/3) 



e-87 a7 sr 26 ea Bl li as 

1-1E 19 ae 04 56 23 5E 23 
2-ES 2» 3C *«J as O* OF CB 
3-13 17 OF CB 13 17 17 CB 

4-ie 17 or cb la 17 17 cb 

5-5F 2S 02 EE 3F C6 90 77 
6-S3 10 E3 11 ID- 00 13 22 
7-3C 4.6 El BD 20 CE C9 ED 
3-4.B 7B 40 79 FE IB Da 7S 
O-FE IB Da 87 87 87 6F 26 
10-00 29 &Q 70 81 3C 85 8F 
11-30 01 24. ED SB BC A,® 19 
1S-23 3C *0 3B at 40 CO 84 
13-40 C9 



333 

763 

538 

526 

563 

333 

103B 

■33* 

1037 

63B 

S14 

658 

265 



5 GOTO IIP 

10 POKE 16507,0 

13 POKE 16503,0 

14 FOB O-l TO L.EN R* 

15 POKE 16507, 1PEEK 16307+4) R 
ND PEEK 1BS17IS8 

20 POKE 16417, CODE Html 

30 DflND USR 16S79 

40 IF PEEK 1SS07=2S THEM POKE 
165BS, (PEEK 16S«3+4> AND PEE?'. IS 
508 <20 

BB NEXT « 

55 PAUSE 100 

37 CLS 

BO RETURN 

O0 LET n«="" 

92 POKE 16307,0 

93 POKE 16508,0 
9S POKE 

110 REM _ 

120 LET a*." 

130 FOR Fi=0 TO 63 

1*0 LET n*=R*+CHR* H 

130 NEXT ft 

1S2 CLS 

1SS POKE 16362,0 

ISO POKE 16562,13 

170 CQSUB 10 

130 POKE 1S562,123 

190 GOS UB IP 

2L>2 POKE 16SS2.0 

205 LET fl»=" TYPER : " »■■"» U'5E 

THE HRROU KEYS TO rtOUE." 

21CI GOSUB 10 

BSS LET L-0 

230 LET C=0 

235 POKE 16503, L 

240 POKE 16S07,C 

S43 POKE 16417,0 

243 LET B»=INKEy* 

260 POKE 165S2,123 

2S5 RHND U5R 18S79 

270 POKE 1^562,0 

375 RHND U5R 16S79 

3S0 IF H »=*■ THEN GOTO 24S 

2Q5 IF H»)CHR( S3 THEN GOTO 32S 

335 POKE 16417, CODE Fl» 

296 R«ND USR 16579 

293 LET C-C+4 

300 IF Ct29 THEN SOTO 24.0 

310 LET L-L+4 

3S0 SOTO 330 

325 LET C=C+4* I (H»=CHR* 115,1- 
!=CHR« 114) ) 

330 LET L=L+4» ( IR*=CMR* 113U ■ 
S=CHR» lia) ) 

340 GOTO 235 



69 Bits & Bytes - December 1 9B5 



JX software 'serious' 



By Richard Gorham 



IBM 



To coincide with the recent unveiling 
of their new JX computer, IBM NZ has 
also released a range of software speci- 
fically for use with the machine. 

The quantity, and probably more 
importantly, quality of the software 
announced is proof of the seriousness 
with which IBM intends to market the 
machine. 

Each of the more than 1 00 packages 
is presented in a large plastic box similar 
to an overgrown audio cassette jacket, 
and shrink-wrap sealed for perfect 
"freshness". 

The package will typically contain one 
or more of the JX's sensible 3.5 inch dis- 
kettes encoded with the software, 
together with comprehensive documen- 
tation in paperback-bound A5 format. 

Over 95 percent of the packages will 
run on the standard 1 28k single 3.5 inch 
drive JX. The exceptions require either 
more memory, usually 256k (although 
one package does require 384k}, or 
extra peripherals specific to the applica- 
tion (such as a host PC- XT in the case of 
the cluster program). 

The applications covered range from 
the surprisingly comprehensive educa- 
tion software to the inevitable spread- 
sheet, work-processor, and other busi- 
ness programs, through the program 
development area (with no less than 
seven languages supported), and into 
the domestic "entertainment" area. 



Co-operative 



Most of the packages are IBM- 
sourced with nine being marketed in 
conjunction with the original software 
company. 

Examples of this co-operative 
approach are the release of Multiplan on 
diskette, and the stated "imminent" 
release of Lotus 1-2-3 on JX ROM car- 
tridge. 

A large quantity of the software is 
aimed at the educational market, with a 
variety of primary, intermediate and 
senior levels being addressed. 

The JX machine provided for review 
last month was delivered with five edu- 
cational packages, and four packages 
aimed at the general business and 
domestic areas. 

The first of the educational programs 
was "Picture Play" — a word and mem- 
ory development program aimed at the 3 
to 6 year age range. 

My two-year-old daughter and I found 
this to be an amusing and relatively chal- 
lenging application, and it was run sev- 
eral times in succession before the 
novelty began to wear off (I don't know if 



it's significant, but she tired of it before I 
did!) 

The program allows the participant(s) 
to either match a word to a range of sym- 
bols, match a symbol to a range of like- 
symbols {eg a picture of a hammer with 
a picture of a screwdriver), or play a 
game of matching a number of hidden 
symbols with other hidden symbols — 
each turn revealing a symbol then hiding 
it again in the same manner as the age 
old "battleship" game. 

Rewards 



Correct replies are greeted with elec- 
tronic chirps, much to the glee of the 
younger viewers. Completing each set 
of questions results in an amusing 
graphics interlude (even greater glee!) 
_ There are six different quizzes to try. 
Each of the quizzes' 12 questions are 
randomly picked from a pool of 30 possi- 
ble ones so the same quiz can be run 
more than once in succession without 
losing too much audience attention. 

The only slightly distracting aspect is 
the use of a few symbols (for example a 
street-side fire-hydrant) that are glar- 
ingly specific to the USA. I'm sure that 
the programmers ) could have used 
more universal symbols without sacrific- 
ing any of the value of such icons. 

From the technical point of view I can 
say that the program has been well 
thought out, with a pleasing balance of 
simple commands and sophisticated 
graphics. 

Whilst I am not qualified to make an 
assessment of the educational value of 
such a product I am informed by my local 
primary-school teacher (i.e. spouse) 
that it would be fairly useful in either a 
group classroom situation or on an indi- 
vidual pupil basis — providing of course 
that the classroom in question had 
access to the necessary JXs (said in a 
tone of some scepticism, I must report). 

I would give the package 8 out of 10 
for general ease of use, quality of prog- 
ramming and value for money. 

Scientific 

The other four educational packages 
supplied comprise the "Earth Science 
Series", designed to be used by high- 
school or college level students in either 
group or self- study science/geography 
environments. 

The objectives of the series are to give 
the student an insight into the processes 
at work in the physical environment, and 
identify how these processes affect 



people and in turn how people change 
the environment. 

The general format of each of the 
programs is to describe a particular con- 
cept by means of screens combining 
text, diagrams, and at times moving 
graphics (i.e. clouds moving from the 
oceans across the land and raining). 

Key concepts and words are rein- 
forced by short quizzes interspersed 
throughout the course of the program, 
together with a comprehensive test after 
the summary. 

I skimmed through two of the four 
programs and found them stimulating 
enough to maintain interest without any 
difficulty. I also did fairly well in the tests, 
which may or may not indicate that the 
material was well presented. 

Usefulness 



I would rate the programs as being 
technically very well presented, making 
good use of the relatively limited 
graphics facilities available together with 
well timed "refresher" quizzes. 

However, I do feel that real usefulness 
of the programs would be very much a 
question of integrating them into other 
course material to extract the full poten- 
tial — perhaps courses would have to be 
established around the programs? 

This does raise a question in my mind, 
as to the suitability of overseas educa- 
tional software to the local educational 
curriculum — especially if teachers are 
expected to devise all the support mate- 
rial themselves. 

Nevertheless, the programs them- 
selves would seem to achieve what they 
set out to do in an effective and stimulat- 
ing way. 

The other supplied packages were 
four programs from the "Assistant" 
series of home and small business appli- 
cations software. This series, nine pac- 
kages in total, is an integrated set of 
straight-forward programs designed to 
address the usual PC applications of 
word processing, spreadsheeting, sim- 
ple database storage and retrieval, 
graphing, and communications. 

All the programs are available for both 
PC senior and JX machines. To give a 
comprehensive review of each of the 
packages in this small space would no 
be realistic. Each would warrant a col 
umn to itself. 

Instead, I will give a brief overview of 
their function and make comment on 
their general suitability for their intended 
market (typically this would be first-time 
PC users, small businesses, or experi- 

(Cotittnued on page 7G\ 



Bits & Bytes -December 1985 69 



IBM 



{Continued from page 69) 

enced users requiring only infrequent 
access to PC applications software). 

Assistants 



The four programs evaluated were: 
Filing Assistant (a simple data storage 
and retrieval package), Reporting Assis- 
tant (companion to Filing Assistant, pro- 
viding hardcopy reports from the stored 
data), Graphing Assistant (giving busi- 
ness graphics such as bar-charts, and 
line graphs), and Writing Assistant (a 
simple word-processing program}. 

Each of the programs follows a similar 
format, being menu- driven, with options 
selected by entering the appropriate 
choice by means of an option number, 
and with a consistent screen layout and 
sequence of operation. 

There are no "windows", fancy 
graphics, or provision for electric 
rodents. In short, no frills. 

This style of application design, sim- 
ple as It Is. goes somewhat against the 
current trends in PC application 
software. Most of the recent PC pac- 
kages released seem to be trying to fit 
more and more features into what are 
basically simple applications, presuma- 
bly as a one-up-man-ship, window dres- 
sing attempt to outsell their competitors. 

No wonder then that the average first- 
time PC purchaser/user can become 
rather bewildered when it comes to buy- 
ing software. It can be very difficult to 
separate essential from non-essential 
ingredients in a software package with- 
out in-depth experience of utilising such 
products. 

One statistic may highlight my con- 
cern more dramatically. Two years ago I 
did a mini-survey of word-processing 
packages available for the IBM PC and 
clones. The staggering thing was that 
there were 80 different packages availa- 
ble on the NZ market alone (I wonder 
how many now?). How on earth should 
you choose one? 

Bare essentials 

This is where the Assistant series' 
"bare-essentials-only" approach could 
score well in the market. 



My experience of assisting first-time 
users is that they want simple applica- 
tions packages which may be limited in 
facilities but which can be used without a 
long training and familiarisation period. If 
the package is going to be used 
infrequently then this will also be a fac- 
tor. 

One other point is that the easier it is 
for users to become totally familiar with a 
package then the more confident they 
will be when it comes to solving those 
awkward real-life type problems that 
never seem to be examples In the train- 
ing manual. 

With complex packages the user may 
well give up trying to solve this type of 
problem — the solution may take more 
time to research and craft than resorting 
to manual methods, and given that 
choice most users will opt for the method 
they feel most comfortable with. 

Word-processor 

Writing Assistant is a very simple 
word- processing package giving full- 
screen editting of text files. 

All of the text formatting commands 
are either menu-driven or by extensive 
on-screen prompting. 

The program is of the "what-you-see- 
is-what-you-get" variety. If you tell the 
program to underline characters, it will 
show them underlined on the screen (as 
well as in printout), if you emphasize 
characters then they will be highlighted 
on screen. 

This is in contrast to some other well 
known word processing packages, 
where formatting commands have to be 
embedded in the text for subsequent 
printing operations to unscramble. 

In line with the integrated approach of 
the rest of the Assistant series, Writing 
Assistant provides some powerful 
facilities for interchanging data with the 
other packages. 

Form letters can easily be produced 
using Filing Assistant files. For example 
the same letter could be produced for all 
the names and addresses in a file disk, 
substituting the correct name and 
address in the appropriate places on the 
letter. 

The package even has a rather handy 
facility for labelling envelopes (some- 
thing I still have problems doing with my 



Business people- 
Get professional sates and 
support from Kapiti Coast's 
Computer Specialists. 

Authorised 



£z commodore oeaiei 




ffii 




n 



ndependent 
usiness 
achines 
imited 

Beach Chambers, Sea view Rd, 
Paraparaumu Beach. Tel: 88-277 
Open Mon. to Sat. -9 am 5 p,T1 



old favourite — Wordstar). 

Files 



Filing Assistant (as its name 
suggests) allows the user to set up sim- 
ple files of data for subsequent retrieval 
or update. 

The method of defining the file to be 
stored is by creating an input/output 
"form" on screen by simply typing in a 
field-name (terminated by a colon) any- 
where on the screen. 

Data can then be entered into the file 
by calling up the "form" in insert mode, 
and typing in the relevant field data. 

Various records in the file can be 
retrieved by means of field selection 
criteria. For example, any record having 
a name-field containing "Smith" could 
be retrieved for viewing or printing. 

Selection criteria can be quite com- 
plex if desired, with combinations of 
fields being selected. Exclusion of cer- 
tain records can also be achieved. 

The program teams up with all the 
other Assistant programs to provide the 
means of storing data for use in Graph- 
ing Assistant, Writing Assistant, or 
Reporting Assistant. 

Report sort 

Reporting Assistant is the natural 
companion (sic) to Filing Assistant in 
that it provides the means of producing 
reasonably complex hard-copy reports 
with simple formatting commands. 

Reports can be sorted on up to four 
different key-fields, with automatic sub- 
totalling and grand-totalling on change 
of key- fields. 

Edit masks can be provided for fields 
to be printed (i.e. to insert decimal 
points, dollar signs etc). 

Graphing Assistant allows the user to 
produce on-screen or printed graphs of 
data input directly through the keyboard 
or via Filing Assistant files previously 
established. Data can also be utilised 
from some other (non-Assistant) pac- 
kages. 

Graphs can be produced in either line 
or bar format. Ple-charfs cannot be pro- 
duced, but I cant say 1 miss them. 

Graphs can be stored on disk for sub- 
sequent Incorporation into Writing 
Assistant document files, thus a report 
on sales this year might include a bar 
chart of the sales by month. 

All in all I found the Assistant prog- 
rams to be straight- forward and easy to 
use. 

Limitations in each of the programs 
may cause some of the more experi- 
enced users to search for more sophisti- 
cated packages to meet their needs, but 
they would probably be surprised at 
what an enterprising "novice" could 
achieve with the facilities provided here. 



70 Bits & Bytes - December 1 985 




Sanyo 



Sorting 



by Noel Weeks 

SORT.COM is found on the Sanyo 
System Disk and is essentially used for 
the sorting of text files in to ASCII order. 

One use is for sorting directories, 
especially when files are numerous. 

Frequently, to make the most use of 
SORT, you need to use it in conjunction 
with the PIPE command of MS-DOS. 
The PIPE command joins the output of 
one program to the input of another. 

PIPE is represented by a symbol con- 
sisting of two vertical bars (I). This key is 
found to the left of the back-spacing 
arrow key, with the Shift key held down. 
The following are a few suggestions: 
DIR I SORT Sorts dir in alpha order. 
DIR I SORT /+9 Sorts dir in alpha 
order of file name exten- 
sion. 
DIRISORT/+?? 

Replace ?? with the following num- 
bers 

15 By file size 
24 By month 
27 By day 
30 By year 
34 By hour 
37 By minutes 
39 By AM & PM 

Some other uses: 
SORT [filename.extn] (Text files only) 
SORT /R [filename.extn] (Reverse 
order) 

SORT /+xx [filename] (xx = column No. 
to be sorted. 



files 



tory, give it to SORT, which will sort it 
and place it in the file called "CON- 
TENT. DSK". Of course the file name 
used is at your discretion. 

One other command which is approp- 
riate to mention here is the command 
used for re-directing input. This com- 
mand is signified by the (<) less-than 
sign 

Often it is useful to have input come 
from a file rather than a terminal. An 
example of this would be SORT < 
NAMES > NAMES.SRT. 



The above command will read from 
the fiie called "NAMES" its contents, 
pass them to SORT, and after sorting, 
pass them to the file NAMES.SRT. The 
file "NAMES" would normally contain a 
whole list of names in an unsorted order. 

To make the most use of these com- 
mands, you should try various experi- 
ments with them. It's really the only way 
that you can become familiar with them 
and put them to good use. 

Don't forget, SORT.COM may be mis- 
sing from your SYSTEM Disk, if your 
machine was bought very early during 
the launch. According to Sanyo Busi- 
ness Systems, it is available from your 
Sanyo Dealer free of charge. 

Power supply modification 



O.K., if you're proficient in the use of 
debug you can get them, but it'll take 
hours. Besides there's a much simpler 
method, providing you do it first thing on 
booting. 

Method One: 

Either at the prompt of your operating 
system, or through an AutoExec file, 
issue the following command: 
COMMAND A: 

This will tell the operating system 
where to look for Command. Com should 
it need to be re-read. 

Method Two: 

This method is the way suggested by 
MS-DOS. . . I n a Conf ig . Sys fi le, enter the 
followingcommand: 
SHELL = A:COMMAND.COM A:/P 

This configuration statement sets the 
MS-DOS command EXEC to the Com- 
mand.Com file, located on Disk A:. The/ 
P tells Command. Com that it is the first 
program running on the system. 

Why does MS-DOS overwrite Com- 
mand.Com? 

Various programs do not need Com- 
mand.Com for their successful running, 
thus should available RAM become a bit 
short, Command. Com can be over-writ- 
ten. The operating system in such 
instances notes that Command.Com 
has been overwritten, and notes that it 



Try this too: 
Enter SORT (ret) 

Now enter lines of text you would like 
to sort e.g. Names and Addresses or just 
words. Like this: — 
SORT <ret> 
NOEL <ret> 
BEN <ret> 
FRED <ret> 
APPLE <ret> 

Z (ends input)(also try PF6, gives the 
same) 

Screen now displays the list, try your 
own experiments. 

Another useful feature found in MS- 
DOS is the ability to be able to re-direct 
the output of a program to somewhere 
other than the screen. To do this we use 
the (>) greater- than sign above the lock 
key. beside the LH Shift. 

For example, the command DIR Dis- 
plays a directory listing of the current 
disk. Simply by issuing this command, 
DIR > CONTENT.DSK will place the 
directory listing into the file called "CON- 
TENT.DSK". 

If you like sorted directories, try this... 
DIR I SORT > CONTENT.DSK. 

The last comand will read the direc- 



Some users have found that after 
adding a video board, RS232 Board or 
Quad density drives that their computer 
no long Br runs. 

There is a current limiter on the +5 
volt power supply that starts limiting, 
running the voltage down. By changing 
the value of the two resistors in the 
power supply, you can increase the cur- 
rent limit. They are: 
Resistor Old Value New Value 
R4 2.4k 1 .Ok 

R5 68 ohm 82 ohm 

All resistors rated 1 A watt. Mod needs 
to be made to power supplies marked 
PS-55 and only if voltage falls below 
4.75 volts. The model PS-54 does not 
have this problem. 

Did you know that Turbo Pascal and 
Basic can read Data star dalafiles? 
Works fine. 

Ever find when using a RAM disk drive 
that on exit from a program you are 
asked to insert COMMAND.COM in 
default drive? If the default drive hap- 
pens to be your RAM drive you've got 
big problems. 

The only way out is to push reset, 
which means all those files you've been 
busy updating are lost. 



has to be re- read Command.Com from 
disk. 

Since most people find their ram 
drives lacking in room, Command.Com 
invariably is not copied to the RAM drive. 
Therefore on return to the operating sys- 
tem MS-DOS tries to re-read Com- 
mand.Com, and if it can't find it asks you 
to insert the disk with Command.Com 
into the default drive. Well that's fine if 
we're talking about A: or B: but not E:. 

Software 



Judging by the number of inquiries 
received over recent months as to what 
does and doesn't run on the Sanyo, I 
figure software is still the number one 
question. 

Judging by comments received, some 
NZ software suppliers do not appear to 
be seriously addressing themselves to 
users' software needs. 

Unfortunately, my personal experi- 
ence confirms that view. I have invited 
various suppliers to demonstrate their 
programs at our user group meetings, 

(Continued on page $4) 



Bils & Bytes - December 1 9B5 71 



Sega 



MAKING SPRITES: Part 2 

Sprites, mags & collisions 

By Dick Williams 




After our introduction to sprites in the 
November issue we are now ready for 
the next part. 

First the mag statements: there are 
four of these — mag 0, mag 1 , mag 2 and 
mag 3. Their function is to set the size of 
the sprites. 

Mag is the simplest and tells the 
computer that all sprites are to be 8 
pixels square. Only one pattern is 
required per sprite and if you want to you 
could define a pattern and place that 
sprite on each or any sprite screen in 
which case it will stay on each screen 
where you put it, or you can place it in dif- 
ferent positions on the same sprite 
screen and in that case it will move very 
rapidly to each different position stop- 
ping at the last. 

Each time you place a sprite even if 
it's always the same pattern it can have 
any legal colour number. Mag 2 has the 
same way of working as mag except it 
sets the size of a sprite to 16 pixels 
square making it double size. Thus mag 
and mag 2 only affect the size of a 
single sprite. 

Mag 1 is a bit tricky, but it takes four 
patterns and joins them together to 
create a larger size sprite which can then 
be placed and/or moved as one sprite. 
Mag 3 does the same as mag 1 and also 
doubles the size to a total of 32 pixels by 
32 pixels. 

Sprites which are doubled in size by 
mag 2 (double size single sprite) or mag 
3 (double size four sprites) still have the 
same shape as before but lines previ- 
ously one pixel thick are reproduced two 
pixels thick. The general sprite code 
is:— 

20 sprite SC, (X.Y). SP.C where SC is 
the sprite screen, X and Y the normal co- 
ordinates, SP is the sprite (pattern) 
number and C is the colour. 

With double size sprites, SP can be 
any number being joined together, for 
example if the group of patterns being 
joined to make a large size sprite are 
patterns 0-3 then SP can be either or 1 
or 2 or 3. 

I always use the first number from a 
group so in this case I would use SP=0. 

Similarly if the group of patterns I 
wanted was 8-1 1 then I would use 
SP=8. 

Now there is one very important point 
to bear in mind with sprites: that you 
must decide before going to too much 
trouble, whether you want single sprites 
or grouped sprites. 

IT you decide on single sprites then 
you can use either mag (small size 8*8 
single sprites) or mag 2 (double size 1 6* 



16 single sprites). 

It's O.K. to switch between the two if 
you want but you can't have some small 
and some big on screen at once. 

You can change the mag number dur- 
ing program run but if you do then all 
small sprites get bigger or big sprites get 
smaller. 

If you decide to use grouped sprites by 
using mag 1 (normal size 1 6"1 6 four 
grouped sprites) or mag 3 (double size 
32*32 four grouped sprites) then you 
can rule out using any single sprites in 
the same program. The reason for this is 
that mag 1 or mag 3 says to the compu- 
ter that four sprites are to be grouped 
together and positioned or moved as 
one. 



C€ifi?if:f.if?f[)7 oooooosocofwsfc 



THIRD 
PATTERN 



first r 
f-httepii r 


3 






E.ECUMIi 
pfiTTERM 


- 


Fffl 






- h- 


._ 


-■ 


■ r 




OT J 1 ') i'J Ci L) C) FEFFFFFE 4S4S46D6 



If you try to place a single sprite you 
will only end up with a group of four and 
because you probably didn't intend that 
to happen the resultant sprite could be a 
bit strange. 

Using grouped sprites, you always 
have to work with four patterns, however 
you can set up one of the four patterns 
and not worry about the other three. This 
will give you a quarter of a grouped 
sprite. 

Always bear in mind that in mag 1 or 
mag 3 mode the patterns must be in 
groups of four so if you do use only one 
pattern to get a quarter of a group, the 
next group of patterns must still start at 
the next legal group of four. 

This example for mag 1 or mag 3 
shows how it works: 
PATTERN S#0." pattern" 
PATTERN S#4," pattern" 
PATTERN S# 5, "pattern" 
PATTERN S# 6, "pattern" 
PATTERN S# 7," pattern" 

As you can see I have created an 
imaginary sprite using one pattern for 
sprite and nothing for the rest of the 
group. 

The result will still be a normal group 
of four sprites but only one part of the 
group will be visible and the other three 



parts will not be seen because there is 
no pattern for them. 

The important point is that I have had 
to use the next group of four 
{S#4,S#5,S#6,S#7) for my next mag 
1 or mag 3 sprite group. 

The next part deals with the actual 
pattern for a sprite. Look at the diagram 
on page 115 of the manual. This show a 
grid 8 dots wide by 8 dots high with one 
half white and the other half black. The 
top row is a byte and so on. Counting 
down from the top there are 8 bytes. 

Look at the top byte. There are 7 white 
spaces and one black one at the right 
hand side, this is a way of expressing 
what will be seen on the screen. White is 
not seen, and black is seen. 

Look at the top row again and also at 
the row of numbers just to the right of the 
block, these are 00000001 . Each pixel 
on the screen is either on or off and a 
zero represents off . a one represents on. 

Conversion 

In this case we have seven screen 
pixels turned off (not seen), and one 
pixel turned on (visible). The number 
00000001 is binary. This is the language 
the computer understands but it's not 
easy for us to understand and also it's 
too long, so we must convert this to J 
hexadecimal. 

The first step is to separate the 8 bit 
binary number into two four bit numbers 
as follows: 

00000001 
0000 0001 
This is necessary for the conversion. 

After that, the two four bit numbers 
can be directly converted to hex by look- 
ing up the hex equivalent table on page I 
117. The first group 0000 is and the 
second group 0001 is 1 . 

The full conversion process is: — 

00000001 

0000 0001 

01 

01 

Using the pattern on page 1 1 5 as an 
example; the first hex number is 01, the | 
second is 03, the third is 07 and so on. 

Now putting them all together you gel: 
01 03 07 OF 1 F 3F 7F FF, and squeezed 
up, 0103070F1F3F7FFF as shown on 
page 1 1 6. 

This is the process used to create the] 
patterns for sprites and the pattern is 
then used as shown on page 1 6 lines 10, 
20 and 30. i suggest you add the follow- 
ing line to keep the sprite visible: 40 
GOTO 40. And you may also find it an 



72 Bits & Bytes - December 1 9B5 



Sega 




advantage to separate the code in line 

20, 

FROM TH1S:20 PATTERN S#0,"etc 

TO THIS:20 PATTERN S#0,"etc. 

The added space can make it much 
easier to understand — that it means 
pattern for sprite number or pattern for 
sprite number 4 as the case may be. 

it can be very time consuming to 
create the patterns for sprites using 
graph paper and you might find the pat- 
tern editor program useful. 

I have also included sprite 6 which 
shows some sprites expanding and con- 
tracting, sprite 7 which shows how to 
make sprites follow a circular path, sprite 
8 a space ship and sprite 9 two horses 
having a race. 



«: 6RII 




EFT IR16HT 




LEFT 


RIGHT 


Hi 




I0O0OI 


0001 




i"i 


i 


10 dCiCi 


0011 




II 


V 


KiOOCil 


0111 




n 


'/ 


id 00 ii| 


1111 




" 


F 


(iijui 


till 


1 1 


F 


MM : I 


: : : ; 


h 


^ 


0111 


nu 


■■• 


H 


llllll 


Mil 




y 


f 



M? OF IF 3F 7F FF 



010S071F.5F7FFF! 



Collisions 

Collisions between one sprite (tor- 
pedo) and another (alien space ship) 
can be easily tested for, and if a hit regis- 
tered, goto an explosion routine. Sprite 
program 10 shows the detection code 
and how to use it. 

The collision detection routine shows 
an aspect of computing not fully under- 
stood, which includes the logical opera- 
tions viz:— AND,NOT,OR,XOR. These 
are shown on page 54 of the Sega man- 
ual but not explained. 

The subject is a bit complicated but 
adds considerably to the power of prog- 
ramming. 

Logical operations take place at 
binary level and in this case I am using 
the "and" logical operator in the follow- 
ing manner. 

I want to know when one sprite has 
collided with another one. The video dis- 
play processor chip has a status register 
byte which will indicate a hit by setting bit 
5 to 1 (on) . Now if the fifth bit is on , this is 
decimal 32. 

If we put in our own 32 and tested to 
see if the fifth bit was 32, and if so to tell 
us, the problem would be solved. 

This example shows how: 
"Bit number 7 6 5 4 3 2 10 

Status reg byte 110 10 1 



Qurtestbyte 10 
Andresuit >1 

The status register fifth bit is on, and 
our test byte has the fifth bit on (in 
binary,32 is bit 5 on). The logical 
operator "and" says if both bits are on 
the result is a 1 . Having tested at the fifth 
bit we can now say that a collision has 
taken place. 

The pattern code for sprites is usually 
as shown in the Sega book but an alter- 
native is to use a string for the pattern as 
this exampie shows: 
10 PATTERN S#0," pattern" 
10 PATTERN S#0, A$ or A$(P) 

Where A$,or A$(P) is 16 characters 
long and contains the hex characters 
that make up a legal pattern, example 
A$= " FFFF0000FFFF0O0O" . 

Reasons for using this alternative 
would be to quickly alter a sprite's pat- 
tern by string manipulation, or to initially 
hold the patterns in data statements and 
read them in as needed. 



10 


REn sprite ^----circular path-- 


12 


SCREEN 2,2:C0LDR l,l,,1 :CLS 


14 


CIRCLE (116,36), 51, 15 


16 


CIRCLE [116,363,30,15 


za 


PAT T£RN S80 , "0 103070F 1 C3F 70FF " 


72 


PATTERN SHI , "FF703Fir;0F07030r' 


24 


PATTERN Sft2, ' , 80C0EBF038FC0EFF" 


26 


PATTERN Stta.'TFBEFCSBFiaEBCiaBe" 


30 


HAG 3 : FOR P = 2 TO 15 


32 


SPRITE 0,(30 , 803,0,P:GOSUB 50 


34 


SPRITE 0,[50 , 32),0,P:GOSUB 50 


36 


SPRITE 0,(100, 9),0,F:GOSUB 50 


38 


SPRITE 0.U50, 321, 0,P :GOSUB 50 


40 


SPRITE 0,(170, 80),0,P:GOSUB 50 


42 


SPRITE 0, C150, 130),0,P:GOSUB 50 


44 


SPRITE 0, (100, 1S0),0,P:GO5UB 50 


46 


SPRITE 0,( 50, 130 3,0,P:GOSUB 50 


48 


NEXT P ; GOTO 30 


50 


FOR D=l TO 1000/CP*P) :NE*T :RETLIRN 



10 REP sprite B space ship 

12 SCREEN 2,2:C0LORI,15, , 1 =CLS 
14 HAG 3 

16 REn first pattern 

IB PATTERN Sll0,"0103070DlF357FFF■■ 
20 PATTERN S81,"92FF92FF723F1F0F* 
22 PATTERN £*2,"B0C0E0B0F8ACFEFF" 
24 PATTERN SS3, '■43FF43FF4EFCF8F0" 

26 RET* -second pattern 

28 PATTERN S»4, ' 0I43271D1F357FFF'' 
30 PATTERN SH5, ,, 92FF92FF723F1F0F" 
32 PATTERN SH6, "80C2E4B8F8ACFEFF'- 
34 PATTERN SH7, '49FF43FF4EFCF8F0" 

36 REn place sprite! 

38 SPRITES, (100, 903 , 3, 9 :GOSUB 46 
40 5PRITE0, ( 100, 90), 4, 4 iGOSUB 46 
42 6DTD 35 

44 REM delay 

46 ^OR C'*l TO 75:NEXT :RETURN 



. r . ,. c 3 I 

2,?:ca 6RI 



15,, l:Ci 



Pir ; 

Vn'\ 3 

PATTERN ise, 

PATTES-f. SSI , 

r-ATTEPt. s«: , 

pftllfcRJI i»1, 

i- L r- 

I'fllTEf, us, 0000PPi>0P09C r ?■ It ' 

'WTEPN "3*5, 3F |t>2?40B;?pfp??? 

PAIIEPN SB6, 000020! a .14 -'iff P" 1 



B00eeeeee0i77F3F- 

3F 1 108040 2Pi»0gP0 
B0000818347EFFt y 
S2F 0?04 060[?0ee0p 



32 PATTERN SB7, -F07O0C020 1 000000 " 

34 REfi 

36 SPPITE0,f>( ,60 3.0, 1 IGOSUB 48 

38 SPRITE0,(X*I0,60),4, 1 

39 REM — 

40 SPRITEl.iX , 80),0,4 IGOSUB 48 
42 SPRITEl,(X'10,803,4,a 

4 4 X=X*10:G0TD 34 

46 REn 

48 FOR P=l TO 10:NEXT [RETURN 

10 REM spi.le 10 coil. s. on 

17 SCREEN 2.2IC0LDR1, 13, , [ :CLS 

14 MAG 2 

16 PR (TERN SS0, 008flS4FI-f~FS4a8a0- 

IB PATTERN 5*1. ' 183C65d9FF423JFF ' 

2S SPRITE i, (220,80). I.) 

30 SPRITE 0, (X ,80 3, 0.9 :*--** I 8 

35 B--INPII.HBF i =:r.'S AND 371-32THEN ';0 

36 GOTO J0 

j0 ' UkSMR 70, I ^0:PRiNT7M"t.' 1/1 ; "Hi.'. IS 
ION :BEEP:Frpc=l 10 7(50 JNE* r : Li ipSCWe, 
1 70:PPINTC"R*C51 :>■ P:VT V 

10 REH PATTERN EDITOR DU 

LIST, CHANGE TO GRAPH nOOE , nOUE 
ANTUHERE WITH IN GROUP OF 0'S,USE 
GRAPH Li KET TO CRERTE PATTERN, WHEN 
FINISHED CHANGE SACK TO NORHAl 
CURSOR AND ENTER LINES 43-58 - RUN 

1 I COLOR! , l5:GOTO 19 

12 IFnlDtCBJ, I , I >CHR*( 22S1 THENA I =8 

13 iFniD*C8$,2, i )=L"HR*i229]THENA2M 

14 H--M1D*(B*,3, I )-CHRS(223)THENA3-2 

15 [FniO*(B*,4, ] ]=CHRIC229)THENA4=I 

16 C*«H£X*tfU*ft2*ft3«A43 

17 A]=0:A2=0:A3=0:A4'0: RETURN 

IB REH 

13 FOR p=l TO 16JREAD A* 

20 B*=nID*lflt, 1 ,4) :GOSUB12:Dl*»C* 

21 B*=nlDt(A*,5,4):OOSUB12:02*=Ci 

22 D*=D**UI*tQ2* iNtxT :REST0RE :BEEP 

23 FOR P=l TO 16:R£AD A* 

24 BJ=nID*!AS, 3,4) :GOSUB 1 2 :E 1 *=C* 

25 B*=t1ID.*lA*. 13,4] :OOSUB12:E2« = CS 

26 E*=E*+El*'E2S:NExT:BEEP 

27 S04^LEFTi(Dt, 16] :S i *=R I GHT* iDt, 16 ] 

28 S2*=LEFT*CE*. 16) :S3*=RISHTS(E*, 15) 

29 REn 

30 SCREEN 2,2:C0L0R1, 15, , l:CLS:rlAG 3 

31 PRINT CHRtl 16) 

32 CURSOR 10, 81:PR]nt S0* 

33 CURSOR ]0,105:PRInT £11 

34 CURSORI50, 8l=PRINT S2* 

35 CURSORI50, 105JPR1NT S3* 

36 PATTERN S80.S0* 

37 PATTERN SSI ,Sl t 
3B PATTERN SH2.S2* 
33 PATTERN SS3.S3* 

40 SPRITE 4, (110,30) ,0 ,f:GOTO 40 

41 REn -set pixels u,th ^rapn y we^ 

ary ngt set ^L.^t show 

42 REn < S— J>< — S > 

43 DATA 0000^00000000000 

44 DATA 0000000000800000 

45 DATA 0000000000000000 

46 DATA 8000000000000000 

47 DATA 0000000000000000 
4B DATA 0000000000000000 

49 DATA 0000000000000000 

50 DATA 0000000000000000 :RtH 

51 DATA 0000800000000000 :REn 

52 DATA 0000000000000000 

53 DATA 0008800000000000 

54 DATA 0000000000000000 

55 DATA 0008000080080000 

56 DATA 0000000000800000 

57 DATA 0000000000000008 

58 DATA oe 00 00 000;- 00 s>: ::pi 

Bits & Bytes - December 1 985 73 
J 



1\ Jt 











Yatebw&apettoni 
business computer. 




S. -' !,f, »' & 



But now your business 
has outgrown it 



So you're thinking of adding a second 
personal business computer... 














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provides the business computer solution. 



Whether you already own a personal business 
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Inst time, there's one thing you can almost rely on - 
sooner or later your business is going to outgrow It. 
And when that happens, you've got a decision to 
make 

Do you buy another business computer? And if 
you do, how long will it be before you've outgrown 
that? 

We would like to suggest that before you 
commit yourself to any expenditure, you take time 
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In fact with the Altos 186. virtually any 
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Because Altos Computer systems use the 



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COMPUfER SYSTEMS" 

WORLD LEADER IN MULTI-USER MICRO SYSTEMS 

Solt iiiltiorisei HiwhiUnt Bitlritmloi: 
CHASE COMrUTiaS 170. 



Bils & Bytes - December 1 985 75 



Machine Language 




Most 6502/6510 machines will run 
these routines, as long as absolute 
addresses are taken into account. 

In BASIC, there are two common 
ways of handling strings to or from the 
most often used device, the screen. 

Messages, scores, etc. are PRINTed 
or POKED. The same procedures can 
be adopted in ML, but it can get a little 
cumbersome for larger strings. 

Of course the increased speed is an 
advantage. Example 1 shows two 
examples for putting a white 'A' at the 
top left of the C64 screen. Note that 1a 
uses CHR$ values, and 1b uses ASCII 
values. 

A mention should be made of Jump 
Tables. 6502 chips have an area set 
aside on them for various vectors, such 
as OUTPUT, OPEN, SAVE etc. 

There is a twofold advantage in doing 
this. 

First, newer machines which may 
have small ROM re-writes can use old 
software and second, converting prog- 
rams from one model to another is much 
simpler. 

For example, the C64 and VI C20 have 
many routines in common. In Example 
1, when the computer 'GOSUBs' to 
SFFD2, it finds JMPSF1CA. The PRINT 
routine goes from $F1CA to $F207, 
where there is an RTS. 

Actually, the routine is 'Output a 
character' and handles outputs to the 
printer, RS-232 etc. as well as the 
screen, which just happens to be the 
default device. 

Big & small 

The first routine is only space effective 
when«mall strings are to be handled. 
LoopS'are needed for larger operations. 

Example 2 uses a string stored at 
$C100 (49408) onwards, with an '0' as 
an end of string marker. This means that 
the loop will keep getting characters until 
either the 0' is reached or the loop 
reaches 255+1. 

To get the string into memory use 
something like Example 3. 

By changing start addresses and loop 
pointers, many different strings could be 
accessed with the same routine. To 
make things a bit easier, there is a ROM 
routine that prints a string whose 
address is held in the Accumulator (1o) 

76 Bits & Bytes - December 1 9B5 



nravellecQ/^String 



By Joe Colquitt 



and the Y register (hi). To use it, set 
these two, then JMP or JSR to $AB1 E. 
The string should be terminated in a car- 
riage return. CHR$(1 3). $AB1E is 43809 
decimal. 



Keywords 



The keywords LEFT$, RIGHTS and 
MID$ can also be performed in ML. 
Examples 4a, b, c use the same data 
(AS) as Example 2. 

In Example 4c. we will assume that 
LEN (A$) is unknown, so a function for 
finding LEN(A$) is included. 

Inputs in BASIC can be examined by 
user ML. A ROM routine puts an INPUT- 
ted string into location $0200 onwards 
and terminates it with a '0'. In this state it 
is ideally suitable for routines of the sort 
covered. 

Try this demonstration program. 
CHR$ values are in Appendix C of the 
User's Guide. 
10INPUTA$ 

20 FORI=0TOLEN(A$):C=l+512 
30 

PRlNTC,PEEK(C),CHR$(34)CHR$ 
(PEEK(C)) 
40NEXT:PRINT:GOTO10 

Example 5 is a piece of code that 
comes in handy. It's a string compare, 
often found in adventures, data 
searches etc. 

String(2) must be in memory before 
calling the routine. String(1) comes from 
the INPUT buffer, which is a volatile area 
of memory that gets refreshed with 
every new INPUT. 

Assume that String (2) is at $C100, 
and a match will result in the Y register 
being set to 1 , with the X register holding 
LEN(String(1)). 

This routine is not very selective and 
really does a LEFTS test. To completely 
match two strings, a test length match 
should be done as well. 

Another useful ROM routine* is 
'PLOT', which you can use to set or read 
the cursor position. Access is by 
SYS65520 or JSR$FFF0. If you call 
PLOT with the carry flag set, a 'read' is 
done, and the cursor position is held in X 
(row) and Y (column). PLOT is very 
handy for avoiding strings of cursor 
moves. See Example 6. 

If you would like a copy fo the monitor 
'Supermon' and instructions send me a 
disk or cassette and a return envelope, 
include a small save on your cassette 
and I can make sure that my save will 
load on your machine. Send to: Joe Col- 
quitt, 6 Martin Ave, Mt Albert. Auckland. 



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Bits & Bytes - December 1985 77 




AMSTRAD 
ARRIVES 



it at a special 

price until Christmas 



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and SAVE $3.50 



Programming the Amstrad CPC464 

Richard Meadows 
Practical guide requiring no computing experience lo 
follow the text. Begins with The basics of the computer 
and its operation, then extends to graphics,, colour and 
programming techniQues - giving both newcomers and 
the more experienced users enough knowledge and 
understanding to write their own programs. New 
concepts are explained along the way with the help of 
practical program examples. Plenty of program listings, 
appendices of BASIC keywords and standard functions. 
Cassell 



Our own Kiwi 
Pascal boo 




You've read 
Gordon Findlay 
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Beginning Pascal with the Apple G.A. Findlay 

&C.A, Smith 
Intended to help you learn to write simple Pascal 

programs ,mi! n.. i!n-n< mm ■•,•■ Aiv,)\<< I i n 1 1 ■ ■' 1 1 s Wlilten 

for use by individuals or as a classroom text. Easy to 
follow style follows a logical sequence. Three parts 
cover; ihe operating system; the Pascal language; and 
appendices - other versions and machines, punctuation, 
using a printer, error messages. UCSD Pascal and the 
Macintosh, 
Peak Press 



beginning 
pascal 

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Our new 
selection 



AppfeWriter II Made Easy Leah Freiwald 

Tutorial of step by-step instructions and hands-on 
exercises designed to get you using (he program for 
business correspondence, sales reports, customer lists, 
project outlines and so on in no time. Thorough 
description of all commands and functions; explanation 
of mail merge and glossary building features, and 
appendices. Covers version 2.0 as well as ProDOS and 
DOS 3.3. 

Osborne McCrew Hill Our price $34.20. 

Save $2.75 

UNIX for People Peter Birns, Patrick Brown 

& John Muster 

Non-mtimidaiing hands-on guide assuming no previous 
experience with UNIX or computing. Systematic and 
sequential approach introduces each concepl as a 
"doing" activity. States objectives and procedures, and 
provides conceptual maps - visual representations of iha 
system. 

Prentrce-Haii Our price $50.80. Save $4.10 

Learning Commodore 64 LOGO Together 

Kenneth P. Goldberg 

Clearly constructed for parents and teachers wanting 
to work wilh children to develop skills. Authoritative. 
enjoyable guide to understanding and exploring LOGO - 
what it is and why it was created. Includes likely 
activities for children of all ages to take advantage of the 
CGi's graphics and sound capabilities. All activities 
designed to complement classroom work. 
Penguin Our price $37.00. Save $3.00 

Accounting on your IBM PC Michael Scorgie 
& Anne Magnus 

Intended to give an understanding of the techniques 
which can be used lor accounting application 
programming on the IBM PC First part uses simple 
accounting applications to demonstrate the effect and 
the second part develops a complete accounts receivable 
system. Techniques are introduced as you work through 
the system explanation, documentation and code. 
Prentice-Hall Our price $43.85. Save $3.55 

WordStar Simpiifed: Mastering the Essentials 
of the IBM PC Maureen A. Culleeney 

Shows you how to integrate WordStar into your 
business, office or school. Sets out to give an overview 
ol word processing concepts and terminology; transfer 
manual typewriting skills to using WordStar; give hands- 
on experience with WordStar: and show that using a 
computer can be enjoyable. Covers SpellStsr and 
MailMergje, and includes a diskette for use on an IBM PC 
with tvuo double-sided disk drives [32uKB). 
Prentice Hail Our price $96.95. Save $7.90 

Beneath Apple ProDOS Don Worth & 

Pieter Lechner 

Written as a companion to the manuals lor the Apple II 
Plus. He and Mc. providing additional information Each 
chapter stands on its own, covering DOS. disk amj 
diskette formatting, volumes, directories and files. 
structure of ProDOS: using ProDOS from assembly 
language: customising ProDOS; ProDOS global pages 
example programs, diskette* protection schemes; 
mbbli/ing. the logic state sequencer; ProDOS, DOS and 
SOS 
Brady Our price $55.35. Save $4.30 

What Every Kid and Adult Should Know 
About Computers Arthur Naiman 

Written lor teenagers and bright B-3 2 ye?" ofds. ituf- 
book tells you what computers do, how you can uh 
them for drawing, making music, writing, playing games 
and learning. Also covers programming and all stms I 
oddball sidelights 
Hayden Our price $17.10. Save $1,40 ■ 



78 Bits & Bytes - December 1 995 



IBM PC Programming 
Richard Heskell & Glenn A. Jackson 
Hands-on step-by-step approach for beginners and 
advanced programmers. Uses actual photographs taken 
from the computer screen in graphic examples to develop 
many fundamental programming concepts. Includes 
information on suing variables and functions, ISM PC 
□ OS: numerical variables and arithmetic: expressions; 
sound effects; medium resolution graphics: loops and 
subroutines; bar graphs; animated graphlcs. 
Prentice-Haii Out price $27.10. Save $2.20 

The IBM Connection James W Coffron 

From the author of the popular Apple Connection, VIC-20 
Connection and ZBO Applications, this hook shows how 
easy it is to use your computer with common household 
devices. Explains techniques lor setting up your IBM to 
control a home security system, home temperature and 
control system, voice synthesirer to make your computer 
calk, as well as other home appliances. 
Sybe* Our price $55.45, Save $4.50 

Data File Programming on your IBM PC 

Alan Simpson 

Presents the techniques for writing BASIC programs for 
mailing list systems, grade books, library referencing 
system, graphic displays. Covers adding files, searching, 
sorting, editing and printing formatted reports. 
Sybe* Our price $55.45. Save $4.50 

Your IBM Made Easy Jonathan Sachs 

Covers the fundamentals and details major features of 
the system, including coverage of DOS 2.0 and the PC 
XT. Step-by-step operating instructions, and a guide to 
resources - what you need to know about dealers, 
software, services and accessories. Reference guide to 
operations and troubleshooting for common problems. 
QsbornerMcGraw -Hill Our price $29,55. 

Save $2.40 

Science & Engineering Programs for the IBM 
PC Cass Lewart 

Presents 19 programs designed to make optimum use of 
scientific and engineering applications. Thorough 
documentation, sample runs, formulae, illustrations and 
listings. Includes programs for plotting and 
interpretation, numerical function evaluation,, modulation 
schemes, system reliability evaluation, baselo-base 
conversion. All programs in IBM PC BASIC and 
compatible with BASIC versions of 1 10 and 2.0. 
Prentice-Hail Our price $28.85. Save $2.30 

Computer Graphics for the IBM Personal 
Computer Donald Hearn & M. Pauline Baker 
Discusses basic concepts and techniques of graphics and 
explores IBM PC's capabilities for these applications. 
Examines methods for creating two and three' 
dimensional pictures and graphs, and shows how to 
manipulate and animate displays. Also analyses make-up 
of PC and its graphic features. 
Prentrce Hail Our price $41.70. Save $3.40 

Your IBM PC Made Easy (includes IBM PC 
{DOS 2.0) and PC XT) Jonathan Sachs 

Covers the fundamentals and details the major 
features, Step- by- step operating instructions and a guide 
to resources telling you what you need to know about 
dealers, hardware, software, services and accessories. 
There's also a reference guide for operations and 
troubleshooting common problems. 
McGraw-Hill Our price $29.55. Save $2.40 

Animation, Games and Sound for the IBM 
PC Tony Fabbri 

Learn by having fun through brief discussions and 
Diagrams at first, and ready-to-use examples to help you 
create new games and practical explanations. You learn 
programming skills m the process. 
Prentice Hall Our price $54.10. Save $4,40 

Easy Writer for the IBM Personal Computer 

Don Cassel 
Designed to help you learn Easy Writer and evaluate its 
capabilities before buying. Your system needs 64K RAM. 
a single floppy disk drive, a monochrome BO-column 
monitor and a printer. 
Prentice Hall Our price $35.95. Save $2,90 

Software Construction Set for the IBM PC 8c 
PC Jr Eric Anderson 

Complete package of software tools to help in designing 
programs- Contains techniques, advice and individual 

routines to help you build custom-made programs. 
References for information storage and retrieval, data 
searches, sorts, window building, using disk files, display 
charts and graphs 
Havdon Our price $51.75. Save $4.20 



WordStar on the IBM PC Richard Curtis 

Complete guidebook written in clearly understood style. 
Assumes no prior knowledge of WordStar or the IBM-PC. 
Includes all enchancements the IBM-PC brings to 
WordStar along with add-ons such as MailMerge, 
Spellstar, Starlndex and CorrectStar. 
McGraw-Hill Our price $30.50. Save $2.45 

Handbook for Your IBM PC (includes XT 
version) 

Louis E Frenze! & Louis E. Frenzel. Jr. 
Experienced users will find it a handy reference, with a 

concise summary of key operational information and as a 
source book of information about non-IBM accessories. 
Beginners will find if stap- by-guide to using the computer 
and a source for "what to do and how to do it". 
Sams Our price $35.15. save $2.85 

Software Solutions for the IBM PC: A 
Practical Guide to dBASE II, Lotus 1-2-3, 
VislCalc, Wordstar & More 

Thomas H. Willmott 

Sets out to answer the question; what can a 
microcomputer software system do for my business?... 
and how do I get started? Conversational style explains 
how to steamline office procedures and solve business 
problems using leading software programs. Also 
converts fundamentals of PC DOS IBM hardware 
components, BASIC language and the strengths and 
limitations of canned software pTOducts. Exercises and 
sample programs ih rough out - 
Prentice -Ha« Our price $32.95. Save $2,65 

Science Computer Programs for Kids & 
Other People (Apple II version) 

Tom Speitef, Mike Rook. Khan Pannell, 
Cornelia Anquay & Danny Speitel 
Introduction to scientific concepts through graphids- 
prientated BASIC programs. Original, fun representation 
covering topics such as elementary electronics , physics, 
biology, weather and astronomy, and space. Each 
program is interactive, educational and easy to 
understand. 
Prentice Hail Our price $21.20. Save SI. 70 

Here Come the Clones: The Complete Guide 
to IBM PC Compatible Computers. 

Melody New rock 
Explains which compatibles run what and which are 
hardware compatible, whore the differences in design are 
critical, how the clones compare in overall performance, 
why some m& and some are not real bargains, and where 
their hidden costs lie, 

Osborne /McGraw-Hill Our price $48.95. 

Save $4.00 



Atari 



Assembly Language Programming for the 
Atari Computers Mark Chasin 

Routines follow the rules established for assembly 
language programmers and will work with any Atari 
computer. Examples given in both assembly language 
and. where possible, BASIC incorporating assembly 
language routines to perform tasks in BASIC. 
Osborne/McGrawHill Our price $41.60. 

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How to Excel on Your Atari 600XL & 800XL 
Timothy 0, Knight 
Chapters on programming, graphics , sound and music in 
straightforward terms, All key terms defined, and many 
accompanied by illustrations. Suggests many uses for 
business and fun. 

Osbome&McGraw Hill Our price $25.85. 

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Handbook for Procedures & Functions for 
the BBC Micro Audrey & Owen Bishop 

Variety of procedures and Functions that can be used 
wilh programs of all types. Description of what each 
does, followed by a listing and explanation of how it 
works. Example of a calling program showing how to 
incorparate each procedure or function into your 
programs 

Granada Our price $25.90. Save $2.05 

Exploring Music With the BBC Micro & 
Electron Kevin Jones 

Explores creative ways of using the computers to make 
music Shows how to generate sounds, and to combine 
sound characteristics and rhythms. Covers wide range of 
styles - pop, folk, classical and modern. Examines many 
musical Ideas and techniques. 
Pitman Our price $36.00. Save $2,95 



Getting the Most From Your BBC Micro 

CHve Williamson 
Introduction intended to complement the User Guide 
supplied with the machine. Contains many hints and tips 
on programming and general usa. Explores many possible 
uses and the computer's potential for expansion to suit 
individual needs. Some features and accessories, 
undocumented in the User Guide, are investigated, with 
specific advice on connecting printers. TV monitors and 
disk drives. 
Penguin Our price $13,80. Save $1*15 

BBC Micro: Music Masterclass ten Ritchie 
Professional musician starts with the essentials of 
programming sound and music, harnesses bytes and 
beat to show the way to the harmony of clefs and chips 
of electronic music. BBC can be a drum machine or 
synthesiser, instrument or interface, component or 
composer. Introduces music notation and theory of 
chords and harmony. 
Pan Our price $27.70. Save $2.25 

21 Games for the Acorn BBC Micro 

Mike James, S.M. Gee and Kay Ewbank 
Collection of games programs specifically written to 
exploit the BBC's sound, colour and graphics capabilities, 
and learn BASIC programming skills as you go. Each 
game comes with an explanation of how its program 
works, along with ;ips on how to modify or personalise it 
to create variations. 
Prentice-Hall Our price $37.15. Save $3.00 

The BBC Micro Gamemaster 

Kay Ewbank, Mike James & S.M. Gee 

Shows you how to devleop your own games as you learn 
tha techniques of the professional games programmers, 
You also pick up the skill of solving programming 
problems as they arise. Programs are structured so that 
each procedure, or module, performs a distinct task 
allowing variations on the "core'" program to be written 
by substituting! new modules. Also advice on how to 
customise your programs. 
Granada Our price $20.30. Save $1 .65 

Cracking the Code of the BBC Micro 

Benni Notananni 
Practical guide to machine code programming introduces 
you to the 6502 hardware and instruction set, then 
teaches you to combine the separate elements of 
machine code into the fast code of commercial 
programs. You laarn creation, manipulation and the 
animation techniques for arcade graphics, there is a set 
of arithmetic routines for calculation within machine 
code programs, and appendices on the instruction set, 
BASIC 1 differences and fixes, and OSWORD calls. 
Pan Our price $24.95. save $2,00 

Games for the Acorn BBC Micro 

Mike James. S.M. Gee and Kay Ewbank 
Collection of games programs specifically written to 
exploit the BBC's sound colour and graphics capabilities, 
and learn BASIC programming skills as you go. Each 
game comes with an explanation of how its program 
works, along with tips on how to modify or personalise it 
to create variations. 
Prentice-Half Our price $37.15. Save $3.00 



Software 



The Complete Guide to Software Testing 

William Hetzel 

Explains how software can be tested and how testing 
should be managed within a project or organisation. 
Aimed mainly at the software practitioner, it covers 
concepts of testing, testing techniques, methodologies, 
and management perspectives. Each chapter contains 
examples and checklists to help the reader understand 
and adapt material to personal needs. Case studies based 
on the author's experience, 
Collins Our price $65,60, Save $5.35 

Whole Earth Software Catalog 

Stewart Brand 
A comparative guide and recommendations on software, 
hardware, magazines, books, and accessories, suppliers 
and online services for personal computers. Lots ol tips 
on buying and shopping around, and warnings on what to 
beware of. 
Corg. Our price $27,70, Save $2.25 



pfs Software Made Easy Carl Townsend 

Step-by stop tutorial to the pfs series - pfs Write, pfs 
File, pfs Report, pfs Access and pfs Graph. Programs will 
work on the IBM PC and XT, Apple He He and 111. and the 
Tl Professional — and you will need at least one disk 
drive, preferably two, or a hard disk system. Book 
includes tips for integrating programs and working with 
advanced applications, 

OsbornevMcGrawHill Our price $41.60. 

Save $3.35 



Bits & Byles - December 1 985 79 



Business 



Muftiplan Home & Office Companion 

Elna Tymes & Peter Antonlak 
Collection of models covering a broad Spectrum of 

business and personal applications, personal finance. 
household management Ready-to-use model described 
and accompanied by the listing needed to create the 
model and sample dale with your own. As you become 
familiar with Muftiplan, the modelling techniques help 
you to create customised models. 

as bo me/McG raw-Hill Our price $36.95. Save 

$3.00 



expand. Systems lor names and addresses, catalogue 
index; diary; stock control: bank account /budge ling; 
debtors list/sele/purchase ledger; payroll. 
Granada Our price $16.45, Save $1.50 



equipment you already own. 

Prentice- Haii Our price $41.50. Save $3.35 1 



Lotus 1-2-3 Simplified 



David Bolcan 



Designed for ell feuels, it starts with installing and using 
Lotus 1-2-3, then moves through designing- and using 
spreadsheets; formatting spreadsheets and making them 
aesthetically pleasing; generating printouts; working 
with oversized spreadsheets; graphics functions, data 
management; advanced spreadsheet applications and 
programming with macros. Attractive presentation 
includes many diagrams and graphs. 
TAB: Our price $31.70. Save $2.55 

Guide to using Lotus 1-2-3 Edward M. Bares 
Detailed comprehensive guide to help you make full 
sense ot Lotus 1-2-3's integration of spreadsheet, 
database and graphic functions. Includes step-bystep 
instruction an implementing practical application models 
for financial forecasting consolidating business 
statements, simulating dynamic processes, electronic 
forms management. Equally useful to beginners and 
experienced users, 

Csborne/McGrewHill Our price $38.80. Save 

$3.15 

Business Program Portfolio for your Apple 
lie; An Integrated Office System 

George H. Hildebrand 
Collection of 61 BASIC programs covering such Office 
tasks as interest calculation, financial analysis, 
depreciation, property management and real estate, cash 
receipts and disbursements, job cost r payroll. All 
programs documented for implementation and 
modification. There is also a guide to printing out 
business forms, creating a menu system, and securing 
husiness records with password programs. 
Hayden Our price $51-75. Save $4.20 

Online Computing for Small Businesses - 
Silver's Wall Maurice A. Silver, 

John Jeacocke & Ray WeJIand 
Sets out to provide managers of small businesses with a 

clear, concise but non-technical instruction in the use of 
on-line computing based on the pratical experience ol the 
authors. No prior knowledge of computing assumed and 
only essential technical definitions are included. 
Pitman Our price $9.70. Save 70 cents 

The ABCsof 1-2-3 

Chris Gilbert & Laurie Williams 
Hands-on approach using detailed step-by-step 
instructions. Lessons involve tackling projects such as 
building a worksheet, displaying tho worksheet as a 
graph, building a database, simplifying several operations 
using micros, performing calculations end printing graphs 
and reports. Remains a handy reference once you are 
familiar with 1-2 3. 
Sybex Our price $37.85. Save $3.05 

Taking care ot Business with your 
Commodore 64 David P. Dautenhahn 

More man 100 brief BASIC and financial programs, each 
documented with a short explanation of what the 
Computer will do and a BASIC listing. A real-hie scenario 
follows, with a sample run and more instructions on how 
to combine two or more applications. Programs include; 
interest, depreciation, retailing, real estate, loan analysis, 
savings, lease analysts, lime value for money, stocks and 
bands analysis, sinking fund analysis, forecasting 
inventory needs, payroll, insurance, metric conversion. 

Hayden Our price $35,60, Save $2.90 

1-2-3 Run: 41 ready-to-use Ltous 1-2-3 
Models Robert & Lauren Flast 

Collection of models that run on Lotus 1-2-3. Each model 
presented with a step-by-step description, complete 

listing,, an illustration with sample data (you simply 
replace this with your own), and where applicable, 
instructions to produce bar end line charts. Designed to 
simply work, the models include applications for sales, 
accounting, real estate and the classroom. 
Osborne/McGraw-Hiii Our price $38.80. 

Save $3.15 

Database for Fun and Profit Nigel Freestone 
For users wanting todo their own programming. Provides 
straight forward introduction to data processing, with 

explanations of routines in BASIC, Examples of system 
designs for home and business, which can combine and 



Electron 



Apple 



Getting Started With ProDos 

B.M. Peake & D. Rorke 
Aimed at Apple II and He users, this is needed for 
someone familiar with ihe existing Apple DOS 3 3 
systems. Comprehensive guide to ProDos, with 
exercises for practice, Reference section goes over 
commands and comments on thair use, and there is a 
discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of the 
system. A list for further references is included, 
Biuewater Press Our price $6.45. Save 50 cents 

Applesoft BASIC: A Teach- Yourself 
Introduction B.M, Peake 

Second edition revised to cover the Apple? II Plus and lie. 

A manual for New Zealanders to learn BASIC with the 

Apple, instead of picking information from two or three 

sources includes model answers. Enquiries for class sets 

welcome, 

Mdndoe Our price $12,90. Save $1.05 

Fun, Games & Graphics for the Apple II, lie 
St He. Paul Garrison 

Collection of more than 75 ready-to-run programs winch 
you can use, study, modify, combine and experiment 
with, Complete listings written in standard Applesoft 
BASIC and CP M-Supported BASIC 80, and 
explanations. More than 20 financial and record keeping 
programs, and a wealth of graphics and education 
programs, a word processing organ and some small-scale 
database programs. 
TAB Our price $39.75. Save $3.20 

Ken Uston's Illustrated Guide to the Apple 

lie 

No-nonsense illustrations which allow the reader to 

master any application without reading the whole book. 

Self defined chapters deal with buying a computer, 

which Apple He components to buy. how to create a 

database, word process and perform spreadsheet 

calculations, how to tap into electronic information 

services, how to do fundamental BASIC programming, 

video games- 

Premtce Hall Our price $35.95. Save $2.95 

Applied Apple Graphics Pip Forer 

Siep-by-step introduction to graphics and their 
applications using BASIC. Suitable for Apple II, lie and II- 
Plus. Covers hardware and software enhancements as 
solutions to graphic problems, in particular, reviewing 
the software utilities that can make BASIC programming 
pointless in some cases. Special di£k r with 30 programs 
and 24 other fifes, is needed to understand many parts of 
the book, 

Premice-haii Our price $66.75 (includes disk) 

Save $6.40 

The Apple House John Biankenship 

Explains how to compose your Apple to control your 
house security, lights, hoot, telephone etc. This system 

allows the house to accept verbal commands and 
respond with its Own voice. Shows how to build some 
items trom scratch, end how to use some of the 



Commodore 64 



Getting the Most From Your Acorn Electron 
Cllve Williamson 

Comprehensive introduction to the Electron, exploring its 
potential and possibilities to suit each owner's needs. 
Intended to complement the user guide, and contains 
many tips on programming, software and the general use 
of the computer. Some features and accessories not 
documented in the user guide are investigated. 
Penguin Our price $14.75, Save $1.20 

The Electron Gamemaster 

Kay Ewbank. Mike James & S.M. Gee 
Programs structured so that each procedure, or module, 
performs a distinct task, allowing venations on the 
H 'core" program to be substituted. You also learn how to 
Customise your own programs, improving your 
programming skills along the way. 
Granada Our price $20.30. Save $1.65 

Adventure Games for the Electron 

A.J, Bradbury 
Numerous examples and ready-to-run program modules 
in a booh which lets you in on the secrets of professional 
games programming. Takes you through the whole 
process of writing an edventure, with a chapter on the 
type of instructions you are most likely to need. All 
programs in MODE 6 unless otherwise stated. 
Granada Our price $25.85. Save $2.10 



Cracking the Code on the Commodore 64 

John P. Gibbons 

Introduction to 6510 instruction set and how to combine 
the elements of machine code into commercial-style 
speed. Full machine code monitor with 14 commands 
gives you the toots to interface with the 64's 
architecture. Learn good programming practice and trade 
tricks while using the sprite, sound and hires graphics, 
and get to grips with the interrupt handling for multiple 
sprites and smooth screen scrolls. 

Pan Our price $24.95, Save $2.00 

Getting the Most From Your Commodore 64 

Simon Potter 

Uses diagrams, colour photographs, programs and 
examples to introduce you to the machine. Moves from 
starting through writing programs to graphics and sound, 
printers, disks, and extras and troubleshooting. 
Penguin Our price $12.90. 5ave$1.05 

First Steps in Machine Code on Your C64 

Ross Symons 

Clear concise explanation ol machine code - 
introduction to the disassembler and its use; instructions 
for the 6510 chip with the aid of a demonstration 
program; discussion of the kernal operating system and 
its applications such as printing, input/output devices 
and scanning the keyboard. Two complete machine code 
games show you how to create your own high speed, 
animated 8rcada*like games. 
Corgi Our price $12.00. Save 95 cents 

Data handling on the Commodore 64 Meda 
easy 

James G a ten by 
Data processing - sorting raw facts to produce useful 
information — can be just as rewarding as playing 
games. Explains how to use the Commodore 64 to 
process information far The home and small business 
Uses straightforward examples to demonstrate storage 
of large quantities of data, attractive and readable on- 
screen display, and searching and print-outs. 

Granada Our price $20.30. Save $1,65 

Commodore 64: Basic Programs in Minutes 
Stanley R. Trost 
Collection of versatile, ready -to -enter programs for more 
than 65- home and business tasks on the Commodore 64. 
Programs for home finances, business calculations, rpa 
estate, data analysis record keeping and education. No 
knowledge of BASIC programming needed to use 
programs which can be entered and ready to run in lesi 
than 10 minutes. 
Sybex Our price $37.30. Save $3.05 

The Commodore 64 Experience 

Mike Dean Klein 
The many and veried uses of a home computer „ 
programs for the home {recipes, shopping, phone books, 
kitchen metrics,, budgeting): education programs (malta, 
geography, spelling, languages, graphics), entertainment 1 
programs, business programs (appointments, cash flow, 
interest, cheque books, inventory): utility program* 
{sprite creation, chareter design, memory loader, saver 
and clear, disk menu ideas). All programs can bfl 
modified. 
Fteston Our price $31.80. Save $2.60 

The BASIC Explorer for the Commodore 64 

Lee Berman & Ken Leonard 
Combination of suspense novel and instructional text. It 
teaches introductory programming in BASIC. Elements of 
Commodore 64 BASIC and the thought processes thai 
go into designing a computer program to solve a problem 
are introduced through the adventures of three modern- 
day explorers. 



OsbornaV M c G raw-Hill 
$2.40 



Our price $29.95. Save 



Commodore 64 Machine Language Tutorial 

Paul Blair 
Gets to grips with the intricacies of machine language 
programming, helping to overcome the demanding 
exacting and sometimes exasperating requirements. But 
master it and tasks such as sorting, searching and soma 
graphics become much quicker. Judicious use ol 
machine language also allows you to use larger and more 
complex programs. Demonstration program provided, 
with examples of short machine language routines. 

Holt Saunders Our price: Book & disk $53.20* 

Save $4.30 Book & cassette 

$50.35. Save $4.10 



J 



BO Bits S Bytes - December 1985 



Language/programming 



Structured Programs in BASIC Peter Bishop 
Opens with a discussion of program structure and 
design The rest to the book comprises example 
programs, with the complete program design process 
Ifrom initial specification to final listing! 1 carried out- 
Excellent source of programming techniques, 
algorhythms, program modules, ready-to-run programs 
and ideas. 
Nelson Our price $25,65. Save $2.10 

MS-DOS User's Guide 

Paul Hoffman & Tamara Nicoloff 
Sets out to farmiliansc you with MS-DOS in all versions 
IBM PC-DOS. and Visions 1.0. 1.1. 1.25, 2.0 and 
2.11. Covers each computer running MS- DOS. gives the 
versions it runs and lists any improvements the 
manufacturer has made to the system. Complete 
information on soltware that runs under MS-DOS and 
products available to enhance the system. 
Osbome/McGraw'Hiii Our Price $41. 61. Save 
$3.35 

The MBASIC Handbook Walter A. Ettlin 

& Gregory Solberg 

Concise, graduated cuiorial to help you build 

programming skills for use in business, education and 
personal applications. Covers MBASIC tools, describes 
statements, functions, commands and sequential and 
random access files; debugging and documenting 

programs. Includes five fully documented business 

programs which can be customised. 

Osborne ^McGraw-Hill Our price $40.75, Save 

$3.30 

The Second Book of Machine Language 

Richard Mansfield 
Written loi programming with Commodore 64, V1C-20. 

Atari Apple and PET/CBM computers, this book contains 
the powerful LADS machine language assembler . As well 
as being a sophisticated program, the book is a tutorial 
on how large, complex machine language programs can 
be constructed oul of manageable subprograms. 
Extensive documentation provided. 
Compute Our price $36.95. Save $3.00 

The CP/M-86 User's Guide Jonathan Sachs 
Comprehensive guide covering everything from 
Concurrent DOS CP/M-86 and Concurrent CPfM B6 to 
MP/M j B6. Thorough explanation of commands, menu 
systems and files, then coverage of more advanced 
features such as DR Talk. Oft EDIX or DFVNei, Advice on 
troubleshooting, full index and bibliography, and three 
machine-spocdic appendixes on the IBM PC and XT. DEC 
Rainbow and CompuPro. 

GsbDcne/McGraw Hill Our price $41 .60. Save 
$3.35 

Adventures With Your Computer 

L.Rade & R.D Nelson 
Easily followed activities include 16 chapters of 
adventure followed by 16 commentaries, providing 
solutions and guidance on how io program these 
solutions in BASIC. Avoids gelling machine-specific or 
getting involved in dialects ol BASIC. Programs usually 
given in a flow-diagram form, using minimal BASIC 
Pengum Our price $9.20. Save 75 cents 



Games 



Arcade Games for Your VJC-20 Brett Hale 
A 15-year-old whu kid from Victoria, Australia has put 
together a collection ol 20 arcade games for [he 

uneapanded VIC-20. AH programs lisfed twice - once 

for a straightforward keyboard play, and once for use 

with a joystick. All games extensively play tested. 

Selection includes Galaxy Robbers, Yackman. Sub 

Attack. Fantasy, Pmball. Indi 2QCQ, Leaper and Bullet 

Heads. 

Corgi Our price $10,10. Save 95 cents 

More Arcade Games for Your 

Commodore 64 Brett Hale 

Collection of Arcade games by Australian whizz kid. 
IB year old Brett Hale Games are in BASIC end can be 
modified to your wants. And they are listed twice - for 
keyboard and joystick use. Includes Speedy Boulders, 
Encircle. Yackman, and Barrell Jumper. 
Corgi Our price $10.15. Save 80 cents 

Arcade Games for Your Commodore 

Brett Hale 

Fifteen -year-old Victorian whiz/ kid. Brett Hale has put 
together a collection of 12 extensively play-tested 

arcade games which are in BASIC and can he modified. 
Each is listed twice -- for keyboard and joystick. Includes 
Tick, Ciiy Terror. Bricklayer and Surface Lender. 
Corai Our price $10.15. Save 80 cents 



Virgin Computer Games Series 

Edited by Tim Hartnell 
Each book contains a selection of more than 20 games 

which allow you to nine programming skills as well as 
have plenty of fun. Contains brief dictionary ol computer 
terms, bibliography and hints on how to improve and 
exiend some of tha programs. 

Commodore 64 edition $1 1.05. save 90 
cents Spectrum, ZX 81, TRS-BO, VIC 20, 
Ortc Dragon, Atari, BBC editions $8.30. 
Save 75 cents Atari 600XL edition $14.75. 
Save $1.20 

Tim HartneM's Giant Book of Computer 
Games 

More than 40 games compatible with Microsoft BASIC 
able to run on most micros, including BBC, VIC ZQ. Qric, 
Apple II and lie. Commodore 64, Dragon 32, Tandy 
Color, IBM PC, Laser, TRS 80, PET. MZ80K and 
Specrrum. Range covers board, dice, space, brain end 
adventure games, simulations, artificial intelligence, and 
some just tor fun. 
Collins Our price $13.30. Save $1,15 

40 Educational Games for the VIC 20 

Vince Apps 

Programs designed to help younger family members 
handle the VIC-20 and increase their general knowledge. 
Uses variety of games aids such as the beat clock, stop 
the hangman, race the buzzer. Subjects include 
geography, languages, mathm3(ics and science. Hints 
included to show how programs can be changed as skills 
improve. 
Granada Our price $20.30. Save $1.65 

Fantastic Games (Commodore 64 fit VIC-20 
editions) 

Introduction provides instructions on running the games 
and ihe book ends with a section on how games are 
made. In between are Speedboat, Logger, Haze Maze, 
Getaway. Sub Attack and Snail's Trails, 
wingard Haves Our price $7.95, Save 70 cents 

Space Adventures (Commodore 64 & 
VIC-20 editions! 

Introduction provides instructions on running the games 
and the book ends with a section on how games are 
made. In between are Moonshuttle, Metor Shower, 
Protector, Alien Attack, Red Alert and Invasion — with a 
couple of sections explaining data and read statements 
Wingard Hayes Our price $7.95. Save 70 cents 

Compute's Second Book of Commodore 64 

Games 

Sixteen new worlds to explore... Norn photographing the 

Loch Ness monster to running a presidential 

campaign... to test vour strategy,, skill and knowledge. Aff 

ready to type in end play. Also articles on writing text 

adventure games and designing video games, and 

Special -purpose programs to guarantee error-free 

program entry. 

Compute Our price $35.60. Save $2.90 

Tim HartneH's Giant Book of Spectrum 
Games 

More than BO programs covering just about every sort of 
game imaginable - arcade action, mind benders, chance 
and skill, adventure, space, board and card, fun, 
simulations. And there are utility and demonstration 
^programs, games to convert notes on error trapping and 
a glossary. 

Collins Our ptice $13.85. Save $1.10 



Spectrum 



Cracking the Code on the Sinclair ZX 
Spectrum 

John Wilson 

Practical machine code programming guide allowing [he 
user to harness the full power of the Spectrum's 
hardware and escape the confines of 0ASIC. You ere 
introduced to ZSO instruction set and learn to combine 
the various elements of machine code in commercial-like 
programs. Annotated example programs allow you to 
enter and use fast screen handling routines and sorts in 
your own programs, debug them with the trace facility, 
and run them with the on-screen clock. Covers ROM 
routines, interrupt handling and programming principals. 



Pan 



Our price $24.95. Save $2.00 



Adventures for Your 2X Spectrum 

Clive GiHord 
Six ready-to-run adventure games — Crashl Pearl Diver. 
The Ring of Power. The Soueri Keys o! Tarkus, School's 
Out end Everyday Adventure — plus advice on writing 
your own adventures on a glossary and bibliography. 

Virgin Our price $13.85. Save $1,10 



An Expert Guide to Spectrum Mike James 
Practical introduction to tha Spectrum's advanced 
hardware and software features. Aimed at the user 
seeking a deeper understanding of the machine and its 
capabilities. Starts with an insida view of the micro, then 
moves to a connoisseur's guide to ZX BASIC and an 
introduction to ihe machine operating system. Covers ZX 
video tape system, RS232 interface, microdrive and 
advanced programming techniques. Complete program 
listings and projects for further exploration. 



Granada 



Our price $23.10. Save 1,85 



The Sinclair User Book of Games and 
Programs for the Spectrum 

Sixty games and programs Irom the Spectrum magazine, 
Sinclair User; protect your castle from invading soldiers 
in Siege: tost your three dimensional sense Labyrinth; 
improve your geography in Mapwork. face Mr Spec Trum 
on Wimbledon's centre court, rgn your own cricket test 
at Lords, jump a clear round in Olympia, play noughts and 
crosses against the computer, sink a submarine in Depth 
Charge, tackle a crash typing course in Touch Type. 
Penguin Our price $12.90. save $1X5 

Practical Spectrum Machine Code 
Programming Steve Webb 

Designed for programmers who wani to write faster and 
better programs than they can in BASIC. Assumes you 
have no knowledge of machine code and works through 
the details to the point where you are linking routines and 
using routines with BASIC programs. Questions 
throughout to test progress. 
Virgin Our price $18.05, Save $1.45 

The Spectrum Add-On Guide Allan Scott 

Non-technical language used to explain what various 
peripherals do r how they ork and how you can use thorn 
in programs ... games, programming, business word 
processing or whatever. Detailed program listings for 
"best buy" in each seenon, and a complete adventure 
game that can use up to seven add-ons, including iwo 
network Spectrums. 
Granada Our price $20.35. Save $1.60 



Spectravideo 



Games For Your Spectavideo 

Oamon Pillinger & Danny Olesh 
More thah 25 programs including Minefield, Road Race. 
Star Strike, Towers of Doom and High Fighter, Plus a 
series ol graphic demonstrations and a chapter on 
making effective use of the Spectravideo's sound. 



Virgin 



Our price $12.90, Save $1.05 



Keyboarding 



Keyboarding for Information Processing 

Robert Hanson 
Enables a person to develop basic touch keyboarding skill 
in n minimum lime The person who cornpleles iho book 
will he able to key in alphabetic, numeric and symbol 
information, input numbers on a separate lQ-key pad, 
keyboard information quickly and accurately; understand 
some of the basic vocabulary used in keyboarding. Can 
be used for classroom or individual, self-instruction. 
Osborne/McGraw Hill Our price $14,75. 

Save $1.20 
Quick Keyboarding Vonnie Alexander 

Sub titled "Component Keyboarding in 6 hours", this 
book by New Zealander Vonnie Alexander has a unique 
mBihod for toach-yourself competent keyboarding. A 
wall chart ol finger positions is included. 

Methuen Our price $7.35. Save 60 cents 



General 



Graphics Com pendi urns — editions for 
Spectrum & Commodore 64 David Durang 
Useful graphics designs and programs, including large 
library of pre-defined graphics characters, easy'to-use 
programs for designing and loading of your own 
graphics, special sections on graphic effects and 
animation techniques. Plus a selection of graphics 
games. 
Pitman Our price $18.45. Save $1.50 

Computer Bits and Pieces Geoff Simons 

Thrs compendium of curiosities is an informative, 
amusing and entertaining - and somewhat disturbing — 
account ol the wide ranging activities of 
computers... their uses in science and research, 
creativity, transport. industry. offices and 
administration, medicine and health, monitoring ihe 
environment, education and training, games and 
entertainment, the home, and the future- 
Penguin Our price $11.95. Save $ 1 .00 



Bits & Bytes - December 1 985 81 



User Groups 



AUCKLAND 

ACES [Auckland Computer Education Society): C/- Direclor. 
Computer Centre; Secondary Teachers" College:. Pri- 
vaie Bag. Symonds Street. Auckland. Meetings, third 
Thursday ol month, at the College. 

APPLE USER GROUP: Floss Bryon. ph 761-670 (h). Meel- 
ings: 3rd Tuesday. 

APPLE JUICE TABLOID: Philip McKenzie, 4/1 6 J Parnell Rd, 
Auckland 1.Ph 798-179. 

ATARI MICROCOMPUTER USER GROUP: Ian Mason. 25 
Manulara Ave, Forrest Hill, ph 467-347 (h). Meets 2nd 
Tuesday, Western Suburbs Radio Club, Gl North Rd, 
New Lynrt. 

THE AUCKLAND VZ-20O USERS GROUP: President. 
Julian Bish, 22 Ussher Place, Pakuranga, Phone, Auck- 
land 562-166. 

BBC USER GROUP: Dave Fielder, ph 770-630. Ext 518 (w| 
Meetings: 2nd Wednesday*. 

COLOUR GENIE USER GROUP. (Auckland): Secretary: 
Mrs Nola Huggins, ph 655-7 IB, P.O. Box 27-387. Auck- 
land 4 Meets every lourlh Monday. All Saints Church) 
Hall, Ponsonby Rd. Auckland. 

EPSON HX20 USERS' GROUP Contact C.W Nighy. 231 
Khyber Pass Road, Auckland. (Ansaphone, 774-268). 

HP41C USERS' GROUP (Auckland): O Calculator Centre, 
P.O. Box 6044, Auckland: Grant Buchanan. 790-326 
(w). Meets third Wednesday, 7pm, at Centre Computers, 
Great Soulh Rd, Epsom. 

LXIV N.Z.: Aligned towards those using Commodore 64's. 
mainly in education. Contact Brother Bosco Camden, 
215 Richmond Rd, Auckland 2. 

MS-DOS USERS' GROUP: Meets lirst Monday each 
month at 112 Mountain Rd. Epsom. Auckland. Contact 
Peter Bigqs. ph 603-274. 

MSWSPECTRA VIDEO COMPUTER CLUB' Conlacl: P.O 
Box ZZ-620, Otahuhu, Auckland. 6 Meelmgs, 3rd Wed- 
nesday ol month at IHC Hall, 56 Ranludy Road, Epsom 
Contact Bill Ferguson (Secretary) Ph 276-1 966. exl 803 
(w). 

N2 COMMODORE USER GROUP (AK) INC: Kay Cod- 
dmglon Ph 588-931 (h). Box 5223. Auckland. Meelings; 
3rd Wednesday, Remuera Prtmary School Hall, 
Drcmorne Rd. Remuera. 

NZ COMPUTER COMMUNICATION USERS' GROUP: 
P.O. Box 6662. Wellesley Street, Auckland 1. Stephen 
Williams. 

NZ OSBORNE USERS GROUP (NZQG): O- P.O. Box 43- 
182 Auckland Meelings 2nd Tuesday. Auckland Univer- 
sity, Human Sciences Building, 7.30 pm. Neil William- 
son, ph 275-4310 Auckland. 

NZ TRS-80 MICROCOMPUTER CLUB: Olat Skarsholl. 
203A Gadley Rd. Tilirangi. Phone 817-8698 (h). Meets 
lirst Tuesday OSNZ Hall, 107 Hillsborough Rd. Mi Pos- 
kill. 

OSUBBC USERS' GROUP (Ak): Secrelary: Ken Harley, 77 
Boundary Road, Auckland. Meets third Tuesday, VHF 
Clubrooms, Hazel Ave, Mt Roskill, 

SANYO USER GROUP: Noel Weeks. P.O. Box 28-335. 
Auckland 5. Ph 540-1 18(h) 

SYMPOOL (NZ. SYM user group): John Robertson, P.O. 
Bex 530 Manurewa, ph 2675-1 88 (h). 

TARILAND COMPUTER CLUB INC: A clup tor Atari 
enthusiasts living in Auckland. Meeting 2nd Wednesday 
each month at Remuera Primary School Hall. Contact 
Allan Clark 8368-922 (li) 505-409 (bl 

ZX81 USER GROUP: CI- 2B Haig Ave. Auckland 4 

NZ MICROCOMPUTER CLUB INC. P.O. Sox 6210, Auck- 
land. A meeting is held on the lirst Wednesday ol each 
month, at the OSNZ Hall, 107 Hillsborough Rd, Mt Ros- 
kill. from 7.30 pm. Visitors are also welcome al 1 Oarn — 
5pm. at the same hall on the Saturday following the 
above meeting. 

The following user groups are pan ol the N.Z. Micro Club. 

Meetings start at 7 30 pm at the OSNZ Hall. 
BUSINESS USER GROUP: Sam Chan, phone 678-518 (h). 

Meetings: 3rd Thursday. 
CP/M USER GROUP: Peter Ensor. ph 653-01 1 (h). Meeting' 

4lh Monday. 
IBM PC USER GROUP: Terry Bowden. ph 452-639 (h). 778- 

910 (w). Meetings: 3rd Thursday. 
GENEALOGICAL USERS GROUP: Maartin de Vries, ph 

2674-886 (h). Meetings, 1st Wednesday, 9 15 pm. 
KAYPRO USERS GROUP- Russell Clemenl. ph 817-8525. 

Meetings, 4th Monday. 
POCKET COMPUTER USER GROUP: Peter Taylor, ph 

576-61 B(h). 
SINCLAIR USERS GROUP: Doug Farmer, phone 567-689 

(h). Meetings: 4th Wednesday*. 
SORCERER USER GROUP (NZ): Selwyn Arrow, on 491- 

012 (h) Meets at Micro Workshop. 
1602 USER GROUP: Brian Conquer, ph 695-669 (h), 
2650 USER GROUP: Trevor Sheffield , ph 676-591 (h) 
68XX (X) USER GROUP: John Kucernak. ph 606-935 (h). 
The above contacts can usually be found al N.Z. Microcom- 
puter Club meetings and micro workshops, or via P.O. 

Box 6210. Auckland. 



NORTHLAND 

BAY OF ISLANDS COMMODORE 64 USER GROUP: Con- 
tacts — Mrs B. McLeish. P.O. Box 119, Okaihau (secret- 
ary), or Mr H. Perry. 1 43 Church Street. Onerahi 

KER1KERI COMMODORE 64 USER GROUP: Contact Bretl 
Snow, Skudders Beach. KeriKeri. Ph 78-886. 

82 Bits & Bytes - Decern bier 1985 



WHANGAREI COMPUTER GROUP: 16 James Slreet, 
Whangarei. Phone B4-416. Meets every second Wed- 
nesday ol the month at Northland Community College. 

WHANGAREI SINCLAIR USERS CLUB: Meets Isl Sunday. 
1pm — 5 pm. Whangarei Community College. Contacts: 
B.M. van Gelder 83-886 or president. 81-733. 



BAY OF PLENTY 

A.Z.T.E.C. : Brian Mayo. Church Strreel. Katikati Phone 490- 
326. Members alt use micros. 

BAY MICROCOMPUTER CLUB fTauranga): 6-L. MeKen- 
zie, Secretary, Snodgrass Road. Tauranga. Phone: 25- 
569. 

BAY OF PLENTY TAURANGA COMMODORE USERS 
GROUP. Contacts — phone 62-OS3, 65-311 . and 83- 
610. Meets first and third Monday ol month. 7 pm. 

BAY SHARP USERS GROUP: Contact — phone 86132. 
Meeting 2nd and 4lh Monday 417 Cameron Road. 
Tauranga. 

BEACH COMPUTING CLUB (Waihi): Jamie Clarke. Box 
132, Waihi (Ph: 45-364 Waihi Beach). 

TAURANGA MAC GROUP: Contact. Give Bollon, 81-779 
(w). 62-81 1 (h). 

WAIHI COMPUTER ENTHUSIASTS: Contact G.C. Jenkins, 
10 Smith SI. Waihi (h) WAH 8476. Workshops every 
Tuesday. Meetings last Tuesday of month. 



WAIKATO 

THE ATARI CONNECTION. Conlacl Paul Cormaek. 29 
McDiarmid Cres, Huntly. Ph (h) 88-695. 

HAMILTON SUPER 60 USERS": P.O Box 161 1 3. Glenvtew. 
Hamilton. 

WAIKATO ATARI USERS' CLUB: P.O, Box 6087, Heaphy 
Terrace. Hamilton. Ph Bob (071 ) 78-434. Albert 73-380. 

WAIKATO COMMODORE USERS GROUP: Secretary. Mrs 
Eileen Woodhouse. 32 Kenny Crescent, Hamilton. 

WAIKATO COMPUTERS IN EDUCATION SOCIETY. Sec- 
retary, Geotf Franks, Fraser High School, 72 Elliott 
Road, Hamition. Phone (h) 81-050. 

WAIKATO SPECTR U M US E RS ' G ROUP : Secrelary: Roger 
Loveless, 18 Heath St Hamilton. Phone 492-OBO. Meet- 
ings: First Tuesday of the month. 

WAIKATO SPECTRAVIDEO USERS' GROUP: P.O. Box 
16113. Glenview. Hamilton. 

MORRINSVILLE COMPUTER SOCIETY: Contact: Alison 
Stonyer. 49 Coronation Road, Mornnsville. Phone 6695 
(h| Meets 1st and 3rd Wednesdays. 



CENTRAL N.I. 



ROTOR U A COMPUTER CLUB: Contact: Ken Blackman. 6 
Urquhart Place. Rotorua, Third Tuesday of each month 
al 7 pm. Walariki Community Coltege, Rotorua. 

GLOWWORM COMPUTER ENTHUSIASTS: Meels every 
second Sunday ol the month in the Otorohanga District 
Council's board room Contacts president. Colin Wil- 
kins, Olo 8331 ; vice-president. Hugh Burton, Olo 7228; 
secretary. Laurence Bevan, Olo 7066. 

ELECTRIC APPLE USERS' GROUP: Noel Bridgaman, P.O. 
Box 3105. Fitzroy, New Plymouth. Phone 80-216. 

TARANAKI MICRO COMPUTER SOCIETY: P.O. Box 7003, 
Bell Block. New Ptymoulh: Mr K Smith. Phone B556, 
WaJtara. 

SOUTH TARANAKI MICROCOMPOUTER SOCIETY: Con- 
tacts: Apple, Jim Callaghan. 66-667 Hawera: S80, 
TRSBO. John Roberts-Thompson. 84-496 Hawera; 
Sega, Dave Beale. 65-108 Hawera; Spectrum, Guy 
Oakly. 6060 Manaia . Sub g roups meet on I he third Wed- 
nesday ot the month The whole society meels periodi- 
cally In the Hawera High School computer room. Written 
inquiries to Allen Goodhue, 21 Princes Slreet. Hawera 

WANGANUI COMMODORE 54 USER GROUP: Contact — 
P. Nonhway, Phone (h) 42-916. 7 Broadhead Avenue, 
Wanganui. Meels lirst and third Thursdays ol month al 
Wanganui Community Col lege. 

MOTOROLA USER GROUP: Harry Wiggins, (ZL2BFR) 
P.O. Box 1718, Palmerston North. Phone (063) 82-527 
(h). 

MANAWATU MICROCOMPUTER CLUB: Contact: Richard 
Anger. 64- 1 06 (w) or 63-808 (h) Meets twice a month at 
PDC Social Club rooms. 

HAWKES BAY 

SHARP PCI 500 USER GROUP — Contact: Allan Thomas. 
P.O. Box 155. Napier Newsletter, 

NAPIER VZ-200 USERS GROUP — Conlacl: Peter Cox, Ph 
435-126 after 4 pm or write to Peter Cox, 9 Cranby St, 
Orekawa, Napier. 

HAWKE'S BAY APPLE COMPUTER CLUB. Meets 151 and 
3rd Mondays, 7 pm Napier Boys' High School Contacts: 
Bert Tripp 700- 412; Charlie lum 438-005. 

HAWKES BAY MICROCOMPUTER USERS' GROUP. Boh 
Brady, Pinmai Pharmacy. Pirimai Plaza. Napier. Phone 
439-016. 

HAWKE'S BAY COMMODORE USER GROUP: Contacls: 
Mike Phil lips, 40 1 Lascelles Slreet. Hastings ( president ) , 
Mark Hodgson, 1 108 Ofiphanl Road. Hastings (secret- 
ary). Meetings: first Tuesday ol month al H.B. Commun- 
ity College. 



HAWKE'S BAY SPECTRAVIDEO USER GROUP: Meets 
Aral Tuesday ol month al Hawke's Bay Community Col- 
lege. Contact P. Lawrence, P.O. Box 799, Napier. 

INTEFfACT USERS GROUP: For more inlormalion write 10 
Denis Clark, 43 Charles Street, Weslshore. Napier. 

HBCES (Hawke's Bay Computers in Education Society): 
Contact — Grant Barnetl, 89 King Street. Taradale. 
Napier. Ph: 446-992. 

GISBORNE MICROPROCESSOR USERS' GROUP: Sluart 
Mullelt- Merrick, P.O. Box 486. Gisborne. Phone 88-828. 

WELLINGTON 



HOROWHENUA MICROCOMPUTER CLUB: Meets on sec- 
ond and lounti Thursday of month. President, Wally I 
Withell, P.O. Box 405, Levin; secrelary. Dennis Cole. 28 
Edinburgh Street. Levin. Ph (069) 83-904 

WAIRARAPA MICROCOMPUTER USERS' GROUP: Geof- 
frey Petersen. 27 Cornwall St. Maslerton Ph (h) 87-439 ' 

CENTRAL DISTRICTS COMPUTERS IN EDUCATION 
SOCIETY: Rory Butler. 4 John Street. Levin (069) 64- 
466 or Margaret Morgan, 18 Standen Slreet, Karon. 
Wellington (04) 767-1 67. 

UPPER HUTT COMPUTER CLUB: Shane Doyle, 18 | 
Holdsworih Avenue. Upper Hutt. Phone 278-545. An all- 
machine club. 

ATARI USERS' GROUP, Wellington: Eddie Nickless Phona j 
731-024 (w), P.O. Box 1601 1 Meelings: first Wednes- 
day of monlh. 

GROG (Central Region Osborne Group). For Osborne. 
Amu si, Kaypro & olher CPrM computer users. Contact: 
Bruce Stevenson, 5 Dundee PI, Charrwell. Wellington 4; 1 
ph 791-172 Meelings: 1st Wednesday. 7.30 pm. 

KAPITI COMMODORE USERS GROUP INCORPORATED; 
President — Derek Millett, lis Matai Road. RaumaJ | 
South: secrelary — Mrs Faye Deakin, 9 Buckley Grove, I 
Paraparaumu, phone 67-869 (or 859- 799 Wellington ] 
bus.). Meels 1st Friday in month Paraparaumu Primarya 
School Library. Ruapehu Street, 7 30 pm. 

MIC ROBE E USERS' CLUB: P.O. Box 871. Wellington. 2nd 
Sunday of monlh. 

NEC COMPUTER USERS' GROUP: CI- P.O Box 38201 | 
Wellington 

NZ SUPER 60 USERS' GROUP: CI- Peanut Computers. 5 | 
Dundee Pi , Chartwell. Wellington 4. Phone 791-172. 

OHIO USERS' GROUP: Wellington. Secret a ry(Treasurar 
R.N. Hislop. 65B Awatea Street. Porirua 

POLY USERS GROUP. Wellington: Contact — Christina I 
Greenbank. Computer Studies. Wellington Teachers' ' 
College, Private Bag. Karon, Wellington. 

WELLINGTON APPLE USERS GROUP: Inquiries to seen* i 
ary. Grant Collison. P.O. Box 6642, Wellington. Pti872- 
537, evenings. Meels last Saturday ol month. 

WELLINGTON COMMODORE USERS' GROUP: P.O. Box | 
2828. Wellington Contacts Peter March (h) 86-7W| 
Robert Keegan (h) 789-157, or phone 886-701. 

WELLINGTON MICROCOMPUTING SOCIETY INC.: P.O. I 
Box 1581. Wellington, or Bill Parkin (h) 725-086. Me* I 
ings are held in the Fellowship Room. 51 Johns Churcfi, 
176 Willis Street , on Ihe 2nd Tuesday each month si | 
7.30 pm. 

WELLINGTON SEGA USER GROUP: Meets first Thursttof I 
of month at Paparangi School Hall. Contact Shaun Par- 
sons. P.O. Box 187t, Wellington. Phone: 897-095 arm | 
6pm. 

SEGA OWNERS CLUB: Lower Hull Meets 1 si Monday eachl 
month Conlact: Murray Tucket) (w) 724-356. (h) 6(32. 
747. 

WELLINGTON SPECTRAVIDEO CLUB: Conlact — Doftl 
Stanley, C- Box 7057 Wellington South Ph 746-9MJ 
(w). Meets on one Monday a month al Staff Common 
Room (Level D), Wellington Clinical School, Mein Street, j 
Newtown. 

WELLINGTON SYSTEM 80 USERS GROUP. Conta-fl 
W.G. (Bill) Lapsley. day 286-1 75; evenings, 268-939: n 
Andrew Vincent 780- 371 (evenings). 

HUTT VALLEY COMMODORE USER GROUP; Contact - 
P.O. 80X46047 Phone 671-992 or 646-254 eveninrjs. I 
Meelings. first and third Mondays ol monlh at SI Ber- 
nard's College, 'torn 7.30 pm. 



SOUTH ISLAND 

ASHBURTON COMPUTER SOCIETY: Meets first Mondnl 

of month. 7.30 pm. Enquiries to Pete Boyce, 4 Willow St, f 

Ashburton. Ph 83-664 
SOUTH CANTERBURY COMPUTER GROUP Caters loril I 

machines tram ZXS1 to IBM34. Geoff McCauorun. I 

Phone Timaru 60-756 or P.O. Box 73. 
NORTH OTAGO COMPUTER CLUB: Conlacl: 

George, P.O. Box 281. Oamaru Phone 29- 106(b) Tftl 

646 (h). 
LEADING EDGE HOME COMPUTER CLUB: Elaine Orrl 

Leading Edge Computers. P.O. Box 2260, Dunedrn] 

Phone 55-268 (w). 
NELSON COMMODORE USERS' GROUP: Peter Ardw, | 

P.O. Box 860. Nelson. Phone (054) 79-362 (h) 
NELSON HOME COMPUTER CLUB: Conlacl — MktJal 

kins, Box 571 Ph 67-930 Meels. 7 pm. lirst arxf tfcirrj| 

Tuesdays of the month at Nelson Intermediate. 
BLENHEIM COMPUTER CLUB: Club night second 1 

nesday cl month Ivan Meynefl Secretary P.O. Box B 

Phone (h) B5-207 or (w) 87-834. 
MARLBOROUGH COMMODORE USERS GROUP:) 

ary. Robin Vercoe. 42 Rogers Slreel, Blenheim. I 

ings: second Thursday of monlh, 7.30 pm, IHC n 



User Groups 



BULLER COMPUTER USERS GROUP: P.O. Bo* 310, 
Weslport. Phone: 7956 Wpt. R.J Moroney (secretary). 

HOKIT1KA COMPUTER USERS GROUP: Contacl — Adrian 
Mehrtens. 185 Sewell Sir eel. Ph 913 

OTAGO COMMODORE 64 CLUB Meets first Tuesday ot 
month. 7.30 pan. Conlact: Geoff Gray. 41 Ealinton Road. 
Pti 53-986. 

DUNEDIN SORD USERS' GROUP' Terry Shand Phone 
(024) 77 1 - 295 (w). Ml -432(h) 

CENTRAL CITV COMPUTER INTEREST GROUP: Contacl: 
Terry Slevens. Bo* 5260. OunetJin Phone 882-603 
Meetings every second Tuesday. 

OTAGO COMPUTER EDUCATION SOCIETY: Jim Fergu- 
son, Ann ur Slreet School . 26 Arlluir Slreet. Dunedln Ph 
776-524 

ATARI USER GROUP. Dunedm Meets lonnighily on Thurs- 
day. Phone Graeme Wh Baler 737-907 tor the date, lime 
and place of nexl meeting, or write to 38 Calder Avenue, 
North East Valley, Dunedm. 

SPECTRUM AND QL COMPUTER CLUB — Conlact: 
James Palmer. 37 SunburySt. Dunedrn Phone 44-787. 
Monday lo Friday after 4 pm 

SOUTHLAND MICRO USERS GROUP — Conlact Secret- 
ary B,J. Brown, 40 Elm Cres. Invercargill Ph 88-920 
Meets eyery second Monday at Si Paul's Church Hall, 
7.15 pm. 

SOUTHLAND COMMODORE USER GROUP: (VIC 20 and 
64s) Address' C/- Office Equipment Southland. Bo* 
1079, Invercargill 

SOUTHLAND COMPUTER EDUCATION SOCIETY: Sec- 
retary, Bob Evans. Soulhland Boys' High School. Her- 
bert Slreet. Invercaigiit. Ph (h). 73-050 or ZL4LX 

GORE COMPUTER CLUB: Meets lirsl and third Tuesdays ol 
monlh, 7 pm. Contacts. Allan Rodgers. ph 7438. Dave 
Clarke, ph 5836, 

NZ SOFTWARE EXCHANGE ASSOCIATION Non-prolil 
group for exchange ot software wnrlen by programmer 
memoers. Contacl Ian Thain, Box 333. Tokoroa. 



CHRISTCHURCH 



CAN T E RB UP. Y COMPUTE R E DU CATION SOCI E TV: Con- 
lacl — Graeme Sauer (secretary), P.O. Bo* 31 065. 
Ham, Cbristchurch 4. 



CHRISTCHURCH APPLE USERS GROUP — Contacl 
Peler Fitchett, ph 328-189 Meets first Wednesday of 
month, third Moor. Tower Building. Chhslchurch 
Teachers' College 

CHRISTCHURCH ATARI USERS GROUP Conlact Ron 
van Lindl. 10 Srlverdale Place Chhslchurch 6 PhB91- 
374 

CHRISTCHURCH SPECTRAVIOEO USERS GROUP — 
Contacl: Lester Heilly. ph (h) 428-686 Meels Ihird Tues- 
day of monlh. 

CHRI STCHURCH TR S BO COLOU R USER G ROUP : M eet- 
ings: last Wednesday of month Contact: Dennis 
Rogers, 2 1 Frankleigh Slreet. Chnstchurch 2, Phone 34- 
731. 

CHRISTCHURCH 80 USERS GROUP: Brendan 
Thompson. Phone (h) 370-381 P.O. 41 18, Christ- 
church 

OSI USERS' GROUP (CH)- Tony Martin. 9 InnesRd Phone 
555- 04B 

SINCLAIR USERS' GROUP CANTERBURY. INC: Contacl: 
Gary Parker (president). Phone 894-820. P.O Bo* 
4063 Meets 7.30 pm last Monday ol monlh. Phone for 
latest meeting place. 

CHRISTCHURCH COMMODORE USERS GROUP: John 
Kramer. 885-533 and John Sparrow Phnne 896-099 

CHRISTCHURCH BBC and ELECTRON USERS GROUP 
Meets alternate Monday nights al 6.30 except Saturday 
or Secondary-School holidays, at Hagley High School. 
Secretary, Mrs R D Nolan. 87 Palmers Road. Chrisl- 
ehurch, 9. 

PANASONIC IJB-3000) USERS" GROUP Contacl: Prof. 
B.J, Clarke. Dept of Accountancy. University of Canter- 
bury, Private Bag, Chnstchurch, 1. 

CHRISTCHURCH COLOUR GENIE USERS' GROUP: 
Meels 2nd Wednesday, 7.00 pm, Abacus Shop. Shades 
Arcade. Secretary. Robert Wilson. 17 Warblmglon 
Street. Christchurch. 7 Ph: 881-456 

CHRISTCHURCH SORD MS USERS GROUP Meels first 
Thursday ol month. 7 pm, 

CHRISTCHURCH SEGA USER CLUB George Co*, ph 33- 
007. 1 7 Hillsborough Tee Christchurch 2 

DICK SMITH WIZZARD COMPUTER CLUB. Chnstchurch: 
Contact — Tony Dodd, 34 Mayfield Ave. Ph. 557-327. 

CHRISTCHURCH VZ-200 USERS GROUP: Meels second 
Tuesday of month. Conlact Ian Brrse. ph 523-915, 
Graham Dillon, ph 324-1 1 7. or P.O. Box 22-094, Christ- 
church 1 . 



NATIONAL 



BBC/ACORN COMPUTER USER GROUP OF NZ.P.O Bo* 
9592, Wellington, Local meetings — Auckland: 2nd 
Wednesday ol monlh at Conference Room. Auckland 
Teachers 1 Training College, 60 Epsom Ave, Ph Dave 
Fielder. 770-630, exi 518 (b). Wellington — meels last 
Thursday of each month in staff room, lirsl floor. Corres- 
pondence School, Portland Cres, Thorndon. Local con- 
tact, Anton. 286-269 Hamilton — Waikato Tech B-block 
staff room, last Wednesday of the month 5 pm. Local 
contacts Peler (Ham) 393-990 or Alison (Mornnsville) 
6695. Hawke's Bay — Hastings and Napier alternate 
months. Local contacts: Kendall (Napier) 435-624, Bob 
(Taradale) 446-955; Mitch (Hastings) 778-235, Christ- 
church — fortnightly, Tuesdays. 7 pm, Hagley High 
School. Local contacl Michael. 582-267. 

SANYO USER GROUPS have been setup in Auckland, Wel- 
lington and Chnstchurch. Conlact P.O. Bo* 681 0. Auck- 
land (or further information. 

NZ UNIX USERS GROUP, P.O. Box 7087, Auckland 1. 
Membership P.O Box 13-056. Hamilton 



NOTE: Clubs would appreciate a stamped sell- addressed 
envelope with any wntten inquiry to them 




If your club or group is not listed, 
drop a line with the details to: Club 
Contacts, BITS & BYTES, Box 
9870, Auckland 1. 




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BINDERS! 

for BITS 8t BYTES 



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binders to hold your copies of BITS & BYTES. 

We have opted for the same type of binder 

used last year (pictured) as these provide 

high quality protection in an attractive finish. 

These are available in two styles, 

STYLE 1: With the words "BITS & BYTES, VOL 3, 

September 1984-August 1985". 
(For those who have a complete volume.) 

STYLE 2: With the words "BITS 8c BYTES" only. 
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Bits & Bytes - December1985 83 



Classifieds 



FOR SALE: 4 iloppv disks for Apple [] or 
lie containing LODERUNNER, 
K.ARATAKA, CONAN. APPLE, PASCAL. 
TALON. STELLAR 7 and other assorted 
games Tor $40, write lo S, FREEBORN. 
LEES ROAD, R.D.I KAIAPOI. 

Large list or foreign computer magazines. 

Many titles from about 20 countries 

throughout the world. Send US$3.00 to: 

F. Engelberts, Box 1422, 2970 

Emden/W. Germany 

For Sale: 160 Kb 5 '/." Disk drive for IBM Pc. 

as new. £400 or exchange for Atari 1050. W.G. 

Barker 30 Kowhai Ave, Invcrcargill. 

Telephone 76293 

OSBORNE ONE portable with screen. 2 

drives, interface & software. $1800. Contact 

Dave 23 Vanbrugh PI, Buck lands Bch, Auck. 

Ph S34-4590, 

16/32K Sega owners "Burglar Bill" Top 

quality "Manic Miner" type game. 100% 

machine code. Send $24.95 for your copy lo: 

Michael Boyd. 'Carnbuoy', Mt Fyffe Rd, 

Kaikoui. 

OpSCLPllITl (Continued from page S3) 

faces advertised. These allow the com- 
puter to control mechanical devices 
such as robot arms. With such an inter- 
face your computer could control many 
things in your home, such as heaters, 
lights, and suchlike. The difficulty lies in 
building your own robots and connecting 
devices to the interface. Perhaps these 
applications will become more common 
in the next few years. 

It will inevitably occur that you want to 
connect more than one interface to your 
computer at once. Even if you only want 
to use one interface at a time, juggling 
interfaces by pulling them in and out all 
the time will wear out the Spectrum's 
connector. 

So it is quite important to have at least 
one interface with a rear connector, so 
thai another interface can be connected 
into the back. 

Since most interfaces are not self- 
powered, and draw current from the 
Spectrum, there is a limit to how many 
interfaces you can connect at once. I 
have often had two interfaces connected 
without any problems, but one person I 
knew had difficulties with three inter- 
faces connected. 



Sai lyc 



1 (Continued from page 71) 



but only once has a firm accepted our 
offer. Not only did their accounting pac- 
kage work, but it had an excellent man- 
ual — their's is the one with a sea-scape 
on the box, 

A point to remember — if the dealer 
doesn't know whether software runs on 
Sanyo or not, ask to test it, 

The following list is of some programs 
Sanyo User Group members recom- 
mend: 

Games: Cash man, Time Bandit (ar- 
cade), Maz (maze), King Arthur 
(strategy), Hangman (educational), Sol- 
itaire (cards), DC10 (flight sim,). Adven- 
ture 2&3 (Michtron vrsn). 

84 Bits & Bytes - December 1985 



Utilities: Micro-spell (Trigram speller), 
Softspool (Michtron print buffer), Super- 
Zap (disc editor), M-Disk (Ram disc), 
Cornerman (Desk tidy), DS.DOS 2.1 1 + 
(OS), Personal Money Manager 
(Michtronbudgeter). 
Graphics: Mastergraph, Picasso, Graf- 
fiti. 

Languages: Turbo Pascal (Borland). 
GW-Basic for 55Xs and Macro- Assem- 
bler (Microsoft). 

Machine Language 

t* *mp j * -s {Continued from page 76} 



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LOftMBrSttE ►Higtt Sarins* 1* Lhir 



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PrJfirCOt? 

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It* 'WUTft* 
?P SY£43l!ie 

30 puiNTpee^^ei > ,*EEn(7eei 

35 ffFM 70 1*3* .ton, 7B£*Y tttfr* 

*)9 POT019 



Ceee LDf,K*93 

cees lox**os 

CB«T7 UDY#*1S 

CGC3 CLC 

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CBBC L0fl##3* 

COCIF JSRtfFPS 

CBIS RTS 



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Bits & Bytes - December 1 985 87 



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